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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Ortega y Gasset Jose (1883-1955)

However, interest in German philosophy is not limited to logged in vogue throughout Europe Nietzscheanism. In 1904 defended his doctoral thesis "Horror thousandth year. Criticism one legend, "Ortega sent in 1905 in Germany.

Ortega initially sympathized with socialism, saw him as a social force capable to undertake the necessary reforms. In socialism II International Ortega attracted pursuit of social justice, respect for science, enough high culture leaders of the labor movement - in the Pablo Iglesias he had seen a sample of civic virtue, the only national leader who is fighting for power, not as such, but in the name of high public ideals. Marxism Ortega, however, did not accept the belief that the dogmatic teaching of the class struggle hinders national consolidation. He was well acquainted with the writings of Lassalle and Bernstein, but the main source for it remained "ethical socialism" neo-Kantian.

So, Ortega went to Germany in 1905, spent one semester in Leipzig, where he studied physiology and psychology, he studied three Kantian "Critics". Then he briefly returned to Spain to procure a government scholarship for a longer stay in Germany. In 1906-1907 years he spent one semester and worked in Berlin for about a year - in Marburg. In Berlin Ortega mainly worked in the library, filling in the gaps in knowledge, for 10-12 hours a day. Subsequently, discovering in the late 20-ies works of Dilthey, he regretted that he missed the last lecture courses and books this thinker, Ortega expressed consonant ideas. But while he was under the influence of neo-determining.

In the beginning of the century Marburg helpful pilgrimage European youngsters wanting to get real philosophical education.

University years in Marburg - he was a disciple of Cohen and Natorp - gave him, in his own words, at least half of its aspirations and almost all of his scientific education, bringing it into contact with the legacy of Kant. Dilthey he believed the great German philosopher of the second half of the XIX century, and Dilthey idea about the connection between the concepts of "life" and "history" is largely influenced by his own creativity. Nietzsche and Bergson later sent him on his way philosophy of life, and he tried to find a principled basis for life in the field of biology. Claims of the natural sciences to the exclusive dominion he resists, and not just because they leave aside the transcendental. Philosophy here gave not only the days in university classrooms and evenings in the library, but also hours of rest - the night when he and N. Hartmann and X. Haymsetom Ortega discussed the creation of Parmenides, Leibniz and Kant. Neokantianism was an excellent school, discipline for the mind. Later Ortega soberly estimated and limited approach their teachers philosophy of a comprehensive theory of knowledge, remained narrow view of the history of philosophy - in addition to Kant, the price was Descartes, Leibniz, Plato, but they read through the texts of Kant. In the "Prologue to the Germans," Ortega wrote Natorp that he planted 12-14 years Plato on bread and water, subjected to excruciating torture to Plato eventually admitted that he said exactly the same thing as Natorp.

Since 1908, Ortega teaches philosophy, and in 1910 he received the chair of metaphysics at the University of Madrid, where he gives lectures until 1936. The number of pupils and followers is growing rapidly, the beginning of the 1930s formed "the Madrid School", which existed for several decades and played a huge role in the development of philosophical thought in Spain and in Latin America (where emigrated after the defeat of many students Ortega). When Ortega began his work and philosophy at Spanish universities simply did not exist.

In these circumstances, it was not until the "technical" difficulties: he was involved in enlightenment, philosophy and propaganda in small university classrooms, and in the huge building of the theater (where he read an enormous gathering public course "What is philosophy?"). Ortega called himself a "professor of philosophy in partibus infidehum»: he considered his task to turn these "pagans" in philosophy - it served, and newspaper articles, and business translation, publishing.

He founded the hitherto existing magazine and publishing house "Revista de Occidente", where in 1920-1930's and began to publish the best works of foreign philosophers and scientists. It is this noble educational activity is the cause of many difficulties in the analysis of the concept of self-Ortega. Is not always clear where one ends comment Ortega to the works of a philosopher and begins his own exposition of ideas, the most important of them for the first time expressed in a newspaper article in the foreword, written on the occasion, to the book obscure poet.

Many of his works are either Ortega put together newspaper articles ("Revolt of the Masses"), or record the lectures ("The theme of our time", "Around Galileo", "What is philosophy?", "Man and People" ;). Ortega knew that essays can not replace the work of a systematic exposition of his teaching.

In 1932, in the preface to a collection of his own works, he said that for him it is time to "second voyage" - now he is going to write an essay not only brilliant, but also strictly logical treatises, fundamental research. However, to write a treatise conceived "Dawn life-mind", he failed as failed to complete the most "technical" his study - "The idea of ​​the principle of Leibniz and deductive theory of evolution." Only one-third, judging by the plan preserved, was written a major work on the sociology - "Man and the people." Prevented political events have interrupted the works at his desk in the university auditorium.

Ortega was not a philosopher, "not of this world", two volumes of his collected works represent political journalism.

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