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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Ortega y Gasset Jose (1883-1955)

Spanish philosopher and essayist, a representative of the philosophy of life and philosophy of anthropology. True reality, which gives meaning to human existence, saw in history, interpreting it in the spirit of existentialism as a spiritual experience of direct experience. One of the main representatives of the concepts of "mass society" mass culture ("Revolt of the Masses", 1920-1930) and the theory of elites. In aesthetics, acted as a theorist of modernism ("Dehumanization of Art," 1925).

In XX century Spanish philosophy Ortega recognized not the "first among equals", as the first philosopher in the true sense of the word. His teachings had a profound impact on the entire Spanish-speaking world. Students Ortega as remaining in Spain and emigrated to Latin America, on the basis of his philosophy developed their teachings. Largest Spanish philosophers of recent decades - X. Zubiri, JL Aranguren - in the past, too, students Ortega. Existentialism has remained one of the main areas of philosophy in all countries of postwar Europe, and in Spain his influence was so strong that almost no one Spanish thinker 1940-1980-ies did not escape this influence, until the people, whose specialty was very far from the philosophy .

Ortega's philosophy of history has also had an impact on a whole generation of Spanish historians, the postwar "tremendizm" in the literature (its most prominent representative of X. L. Sela recently became a Nobel Prize winner) is directly linked to the philosophy of Ortega. In the 1940-1950-ies ortegianstvo developed as the only opposition scholastic philosophical doctrine.

Jose Ortega y Gasset was born in Madrid on May 9, 1883. His family belonged to the culture of the bourgeoisie of the Restoration, the reign of King Alfonso XII. Father, Jose Ortega Munil was a publicist, writer, led literary section in the newspaper "Imparsial." Mother, Dolores Gasset Chinchilla, was the daughter of the founder and owner of the liberal newspaper in the past diplomat. If we consider that uncles, brothers, sons and then Ortega participated actively in political and cultural life of the country, it is not surprising that in the Spanish encyclopaedia presented a dozen of his relatives. In Spain, traditionally the first surname of the father, the second - from the mother. So, the children wore the philosopher Ortega Spottorno surname (maiden name of his wife - Spottorno). In the name of Ortega y Gasset, "and" was inserted for euphony. Abbreviated, only first names, first became known as a philosopher in the narrow circle of friends, and then later, in the 1940s, he insisted that his name was just Ortega.

Born in a family where questions of literature, journalism, politics discussed daily, and about procuring a piece of bread to take care not necessary, of course, played a role in shaping the views of the future philosopher. He used to say that he was born under the printing press, and communication with relatives - deputies, ministers - prepared the natural inclusion in the world of politics. Although religion Ortega parents were quite indifferent, he was sent to study with his brother in the Jesuit college at the age of 8 years (in Miraflores del Palo, under Malaga). Gratitude to him who taught six years fathers Jesuits Ortega experienced. Later, he turned to his contemporaries - "to those who did not have teachers, those who have the courage to admit that have not learned anything in Spanish, no art, no mind, no virtue." According to the memoirs of Ortega's ignorance blended into college with a mockery of the best minds of humanity, morality replaced "a set of rules or the dumbest exercises prejudice" art generally ignored. During the time of Descartes and Voltaire even more famous Jesuit colleges their teachers, but by the end of the XIX century, and even in Spain, they could no longer give and Christian education - early loss of the Christian faith in high school college occurred without any internal conflicts - she According to Ortega, "evaporate."

Not much different from the middle and higher education. In 15 years, Ortega went to university, he studied at the department of law, philosophy and literature at the Jesuit University in Bilbao, then three years in Madrid. Passable only taught ancient languages. Ortega later wrote about the "solemn people, echoing the words of the dead, in order to circulate the new generations of their own failure." Disadvantages of school and university education replenished independent reading: home library, along with the Spanish classics were many books in French: he reads Hugo, Taine, Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand, Stendhal, Constant, Merimee, Renan, Barres, Flaubert, Zola, Maupassant, the best French poets and philosophers. By his own admission Ortega, he was "childhood was drenched French culture." The greatest influence on him of the French historians - Michelet, Thierry, Tocqueville and especially Renan (not so much the content of the books of the latter, as the style of metaphysics propensity to associate with the literature, rhetoric). Of course, in terms of reading included Latin and Greek classics, and of the Germans Ortega in his youth knew Goethe, Heine, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche's philosophy which he was endless debate with a friend, Ramiro de Maestu (hereinafter this talented writer will be seen ideologue Spanish traditionalism and the Republicans will be shot in 1936). From the English literature and philosophy Ortega discover much later, she did not play any significant role in the development of his ideas.

With all the love the shiny Ortega French literature and the French Impressionist painting philosophy he very quickly developed a "immunity". "We were brought up in this environment of French decadence, but because there was a risk to take as self-evident values ​​as normal culture, what was, rather, a vice anomaly and weakness." Nietzschean intonation here, not without the influence of Nietzsche to the cultural phenomena applied physiological and medical concepts.

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