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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Semen Lyudvigovich Frank (1877-1950)

" Frank skeptical about all the plans of "salvation" of Russia, the more - the whole world. Reasons tragic failure of our past dreams are now clear, they are not only the fallacy of the plan of salvation, but above all - to the unsuitability of the human material "Rescuers" (whether or movement leaders believed in them masses take to carry out an imaginary truth destroy evil). The failure of public undertakings again leads to the conclusion that Frank need to find a "personal salvation." This conclusion was made in the book "The collapse of idols." Here it is further developed. Do not delay good deeds next match, the urgent needs of the people around them.

In 1930, he created the most significant period for work on social philosophy - "Spiritual Foundations of Society." In the 1930s, Frank devoted a lot of time book, which probably became his most famous - "Inconceivable." Work on it began in Germany, but in the political environment Frank could not find a publisher and eventually translated it into Russian and published in Paris in 1939.

In the years 1938-1945, Frank lived in France. First, the family settled in the south in the resort town Lavier, but soon Frank and his wife moved to Paris. They settled in Fontenay-aux-Roses, communicated with Russian emigres. The outbreak of war forced them to return to the south of France, where they lived until August 1943, then to escape from hunger, moved to the small village of Saint-Pierre-d'Allevar in the mountains near Grenoble. Life there was hard, especially because of the constant danger of raids by the Gestapo on the Jews. Sometimes Frank and his wife were forced to go into hiding for days together in the woods. Finally came the release, and Frank and his wife moved to Grenoble. In September 1945, they were able to go to England and find there to be reunited with children. All these years, Frank did not stop work, writing the book "God with us" and "Light in the Darkness", the latter, although it appeared after the war (1949), but was conceived in those difficult years.

The last five years of his life spent with Frank daughter Natalia in London. Her husband died in the war, and she is one mother of two children. Most of the time lived with them son Alex, received at the front seriously injured. Frank was working on his latest book "Reality and Man", which was completed by the end of 1947, but not published until nine years later. Frank never very good health in 1936 and 1938, he suffered a worsening of cardiac disease. Surprising that he could not cope with all the hardships of war.

In August 1950, Frank was diagnosed with cancer of the lung, four months later, on December 10, he died. During his illness he experienced profound religious experience, which is perceived as a feeling of oneness with Christ.

"I lay there and suffered, - he said his half-brother Leo Zach - and suddenly felt my pain and suffering of Christ - the same suffering. In my misery, I was introduced to some of the liturgy and participate in it, and at the highest point of it, I do not joined to the sufferings of Christ, and no matter how boldly say to the very essence of Christ. "

Frank was aware that criticize the materialist ideas too simple, and that is quite different - offer a philosophical justification for an alternative view of the world his life's work was the creation of such a study. Frank presented the main ideas in three books, which were conceived as a trilogy, "The Object of Knowledge", "Soul Man" and "Spiritual Foundations of Society." "The object of knowledge" is probably the most difficult job Frank. Frank argued that there are two types of knowledge about the world of rational knowledge and direct experience of it, which also has a right to exist, as both - subject and object - are rooted in the "absolute being." In "Soul Man", following the characteristic of Neoplatonism distinction between spirit (spiritual principle), body and soul, he saw man as a creature from the deep inner life, which is not merely the product of exposure to the material environment. Frank argued that the nation as well as individuals, have a soul, and this argument determined its subsequent interpretation of the Bolshevik revolution, the origins of which he connected with the spiritual disintegration of Russia's national identity.

In the book "Spiritual Foundations of Society" Frank used the concept of "unity" for the study of social life and argued that the state of all societies to a greater or lesser extent reflects their relationship with God. This work is an attempt to revise the foundations of political liberalism. Supporting many liberal ideas, Frank noted their inadequate philosophical interpretation. He believed that freedom and the right to serve the absolute spiritual values. "Liberal conservatism" Frank was one of his many attempts to reconcile the idea of ​​personal freedom and religious-state "unity." Trilogy Frank created the basis for a comprehensive and coherent interpretation of the world that the breadth and boldness look resembles the idealistic concept of Hegel and Fichte.

Frank criticism of modern liberalism intertwined in his interpretation of the Bolshevik Revolution. He argued that the revolution broke out due to the limited spiritual conservative and liberal opposition. Protecting state conservatives said Frank, abandoned their religious roots, while the Liberals, having an excess of technical knowledge and experience, did not realize that the state and the law are absolute metaphysical value. As a result, they did not have a strong will and conviction that can resist the Bolsheviks.

Frank also lamented the passivity of Russian religious culture. In this and his other articles he perceived as a symptom of the revolution decomposed national soul that, in his opinion, has emerged from the process of secularization in Europe and, as a consequence, the decline of the Christian humanist tradition.

Bitter experience of the revolution and forced emigration Frank in search of answers to his questions agitating increasingly turn to religion.

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