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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Semen Lyudvigovich Frank (1877-1950)

This served as a famous collection of articles "Milestones" (1909), who questioned all shades of revolutionary ideology. His teaching career and academic career Frank started relatively late, when he was thirty. And led him to this marriage and the associated search for more sustainable livelihoods. In July 1908 Frank marries Tatiana Sergeevne Bartsevoy - Listener higher evening classes at the gymnasium Stoyuninoy M. H, where he lectured in social psychology. From this point, says Frank, - "my life is over ... the era of youth, teaching, ideological ferment and Hunt its internal and external paths. I finally chose my vocation scientific and philosophical creativity and a professorship in philosophy. " The family had four children, Victor (1909), Natalia (1910), Alex (1912) and Basil (1920).

Influenced by the works of Goethe and Spinoza Frank evolved from idealist to realist ideal position. In subsequent years, he synthesized his knowledge of the history and philosophy of their own worldview. Since 1906, Frank taught philosophy at various educational institutions in St. Petersburg, including Bestuzhevskie courses Polytechnic Institute.

In 1912 he takes Orthodoxy and became assistant professor of St. Petersburg University, and a year later was sent to Germany to complete work on a master's dissertation, "The Object of Knowledge", which is the foundation of his system of philosophy (Ph.D. in May 1916). Immediately after the work of Frank noted in the philosophical world. During World War I, Frank lived in Petrograd, working on the book "Soul Man", conceived as an extension of their "object of knowledge."

In the summer of 1917, Frank says in his memoirs, the Ministry of Education invited him to become a full professor and dean open Saratov historical and philosophical faculty. Since the prospects for further scientific studies in the capital was virtually no Frank accepted the offer. However, in Saratov living conditions during the Civil War were not easy, so the autumn of 1921, Frank decides to leave him and again to move to Moscow - the city of his childhood and adolescence.

In Moscow, he was elected a member of the "Philosophical Institute", isolated from the university in a special school, and at the Academy of Berdyaev creates spiritual culture in which the rights of Dean organizes and reads himself a public lecture on the philosophical, religious and general cultural themes. During these years in one of the private Moscow publishing is published in his book "Outline of methodology of the social sciences", and in Petrograd - "Introduction to Philosophy in the compressed position".

Meanwhile, the political situation in the country continued to be complicated, and the autumn of 1922 by the decision of the government of Soviet Russia sent a large group of prominent scientists, writers and philosophers. Late autumn 1922 the German ships "Prussia" and "Lord Mayor Haken" came from St. Petersburg harbor. "Philosophy Ship" (so to speak Russian), "Ship of Fools XX Century" (acute Germans) carried away the intellectual elite of the nation. Among the passengers of the steamer "Lord Mayor Haken" stood his large figure Semyon Frank Lyudvigovich. Myopic eyes always shone his kindness, to have a frank conversation. He spoke in a low voice, slowly. Calm, slow motion. High forehead thinker.

By the time of exile Frank was 45 years old. It seemed that his artistic career was cut short. However, according to his son, the most mature works he created it "in a foreign country, in the most difficult conditions of life and, for the most part, in the full spiritual solitude." Frank and his family arrived in Germany at the end of September 1922 and settled in Berlin. Although he knew the German language at a young age and was fluent in it, it was not easy to make a living. Together with Berdyaev Frank worked in religious-philosophical academy, which, however, soon moved to Paris and became one of the intellectual centers of Russian emigration. He also taught at the Russian Scientific Institute in which young immigrants from Russia were enrolled in a university program, became director of the institute in the last year of its existence (1932).

Frank was a member of the Russian Academic Union, entered the Brotherhood of St. Sophia, and also took part in the Russian Student Christian Movement. In the 1930s, Hitler's rise to power, many Jews lost their jobs, family, Frank, in misery. Help came from the Swiss psychoanalyst L. Binswanger, with whom Frank met in 1934, and which maintained an active correspondence. In 1937, Frank was called to talk to the Gestapo, it led to his hasty departure at the end of the year from Germany to France: the family soon followed.

In Germany, Frank was forced to lead the life of a recluse, it affected the extraordinary efficiency of him as a philosopher. In the early years he wrote several popular philosophical works for Russian students "Crash idols" (1924), "The Meaning of Life" and "Fundamentals of Marxism" (both from 1926), an article entitled "I and we" (1925).

The book "The collapse of idols" leaves the impression of confusion website. She fired rather than calming the mind. Naturally raises the question of extending copyright searches. Thus arose the next work Frank - "The Meaning of Life" (1926).

Pathos of the book, like the previous one - the pain for the defeat of the Russian people. "What do me and others - to save the world and so the first time to justify your life? Before the crash in 1917 was one response - to improve social and political conditions of the people. Now - the overthrow of the Bolsheviks, the recovery of past forms of life of the people. Along with this type of response is on the other Russia, his sister - Tolstoyan, preaching "moral perfection" educational work on himself.

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