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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Semen Lyudvigovich Frank (1877-1950)

Russian religious philosopher and psychologist. In 1922, exiled abroad. Of "legal Marxism" went to a religious philosophy, developed the doctrine "of unity." Opposed socialism as an extreme degree of social rationalism. Major works: "Object of Knowledge" (1915), "The Meaning of Life" (1926), "Spiritual Foundations of Society" (1930), "Inconceivable" (1939), "Reality and people. Metaphysics of human existence "(published in 1956).

Future philosopher was born in Moscow on 16 (29) in January 1877 in an intellectual Jewish family. His father - Ludwig S. - Doctor was awarded the nobility in connection with the awarding him the Order of St. Stanislaus 3rd degree for the service during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. After his father's death in 1882, Simon, his brother and sister were brought up mother - Rosalie. Maternal grandfather M. Rosyansky taught the boy to read the Bible and planted in his soul the germs of later awakened a deep interest in religion and its philosophical problems.

"My Christianity I was always conscious of how the Old Testament based on layering, as a natural development of the religious life of my childhood." Frank went to school at the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages ​​in Moscow (1886-1891), and then the local school in Nizhny Novgorod, where his mother moved with her family after the divorce. Great influence on the young Frank has also had his stepfather - Vasily Zack, populist, who was serving in the 1870s to link Siberia.

On the recommendation of his stepfather Frank read Mikhailovsky, Pisarev, Lavrov, trying to understand the contradictory process of social life. In high school gymnasium Simon met with populist and Marxist ideas. Influenced gymnasium mug, which discussed the works of Marx, Frank was the first two years of study at the Faculty of Moscow University, which he entered in 1894.

During this period, Frank participates in the debate on socialism and political economy, and engaged in "revolutionary activities" as a supporter of the Social Democrats (in a civil suit to form the student did not pay attention, walking in Sokolniki "agitate" workers). Soon, however, he decides to "break with the revolutionary environment and do science." "I felt irritated by precocious youth categorical judgments and hiding them from ignorance."

Frank gradually distanced himself from his fellow Social Democratic circles and began to attend debates conducted at the home of her supervisor professor and economist CHUPROVA. Nevertheless, he did not lose connection with the student movement.

In 1898, after receiving "prom evidence" about the end of the eighth semester of university, Frank lays state exams for a year to better prepare for them. However, exams he could not - the country started to student unrest. Frank was arrested and expelled from Moscow for two years without the right to stay in university towns. At first he was going to his family in Nizhny Novgorod, and then - in the autumn of the same year - is sent to Berlin, where, having received permission to attend the university, attending lectures on political economy and philosophy.

In 1898, Frank met Struve, who provided him particularly noticeable effect.

"I am infinitely obliged to him in his mental and spiritual development, life - 46 years proximity - we were deeply solidarity internally (small political divergence in the 20s - do not count), and 15 years - from 1902 until 1917 worked together seen almost daily. I feel orphaned "- he wrote a few days after the death of Struve in 1944.

Frank joined the group "critical Marxists" along with N. Berdyaev, S. Bulgakov, Struve and Tugan-Baranovsky. Frank fundamentally important work of that time was "The Theory of Value of Marx and its meaning" (1900), which was an attempt to combine Marx's theory of value with the Austrian school of psychological value.

In the years 1899-1901 Frank basically was in exile in Germany, was interested in German philosophy. Finally, in the spring of 1901, received - up to two years have elapsed expulsion - the right to sit for examinations in any of the universities in the country, except for Moscow, Frank returned to Russia and deliver them in Kazan.

Influenced by the work of Friedrich Nietzsche, "Thus Spake Zarathustra," Frank wrote an article on Nietzsche for the book "Problems of Idealism" (1902), which reflects the evolution of the "critical Marxists" in the direction of idealism. After opening for himself Nietzsche Frank experienced the influence of Fichte, Kant and neo in 1904 published a translation of W. Windelband "Preludes."

Since that time in his life, a period characterized by him as "the years of learning and wandering." Earning a living mainly translations, he often travels abroad - mainly in Stuttgart and Paris, where Struve publishes its own journal "Liberation", takes part in the first congress of the Kadet party, from the autumn of 1905, after moving to St. Petersburg, together with Struve starts editing political weekly "Polar Star", and then in March 1906 after its closure actually becomes editor of its short-term successor "Freedom and Culture."

During these years, together with Bulgakov and Berdyaev Frank worked in the magazine "New Way" and "Life Matters." Since 1907 and up to the Revolution he was a member of the editorial board of the journal "Russian idea" and led him to the philosophical department. In this magazine - one of the best in those years - published his article, reprinted afterwards (with the inclusion of a number of works from other publications) in the form of two books "Philosophy and Life" (1910) and "Living knowledge" (1923) .

During this period, political views Frank undergone considerable change from the overtly hostile to the Russian state and its political system to a more evolutionary position, Frank and Struve jointly criticized utopian political views and utilitarian ethics socialists.

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