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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)

He believed that mankind did not save equipment and "kindness." Will take place over three decades, Russell and anxiety become a reality due to the invention of nuclear weapons.

In the 1930s, especially after the coming to power of the Nazis in Germany, the situation in the world is heating up. Russell reiterates to the burning political issues in the books "Freedom and Organization, 1814-1914" (1934), "Which path leads to peace?" (1936), "Power: a new social analysis" (1938). In them, he, in particular, reflects on how to prevent an impending military disaster.

In 1935, Russell second divorce and marry his secretary Patricia Helen Spence. The fruit of this marriage becomes the second son. In the late 1930s, Russell goes to the United States, teaching at Chicago and the University of California. Approximation of war makes him adjust his views. German aggression against Poland, Hitler conquer other European countries encourage scientists to abandon pacifism. Now he was in favor of a joint military force of England and the United States, causing disapproval American "isolationists", hoping to keep the country from entering into military conflict. Yes, Russell was no lack of opponents.

In 1940 he was appointed professor of philosophy at City College in New York, it caused the attacks of the clergy, for which it had little acceptable close to atheism views.

During the Second World War, Russell has lectured at Harvard, and then in Merion, Pennsylvania. They were later summarized in one of his most famous book "History of Western Philosophy" (1945), labor, rightly attributed to the classics. The book became one of the best university benefits. Like his favorite Hume, Locke, Leibniz, it tends to philosophy was not an esoteric discipline focused on a narrow circle of specialists, but live science outlined clearly and effectively facing the wider audience. In this and some other papers Russell revealed his popularization, "education" ability.

In 1944, Russell returned to England from the United States and thirty-year break after he began to teach in the same Trinity College, Cambridge University, where he was fired for anti-militarist speech back in time First World War. His inexhaustible energy is expressed in writing books "Philosophy and Politics" (1947) and "knowledge of man. Metes and bounds "(1948), reading a series of lectures on the radio, and later collected in the book" Power and Personality "(1949). Finally, the "uncomfortable" Russell receives formal recognition at home: it awarded the highest British Order "For Merit".

In 1950, 78-year-old Russell awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Andrew Esterling, a member of the Swedish Academy, the scientist describes as "one of the most brilliant representatives of rationalism and humanism, a fearless fighter for freedom of speech and freedom of thought in the West." American philosopher Irwin Edman in a review published in the same year, "Unpopular Essays" Russell compares its author Voltaire, stressing that he "like his famous countrymen, the philosophers of old time - a master of English prose." Russell when giving the award did not speak a traditional speech. But read the Nobel lecture.

1950 was one of the most critical. The Korean War began. Confrontation between East and West became aggravated. The threat of a third world war has become a reality. In his Nobel lecture Russell outlined his views on the causes of war and the motives of human behavior. In essence, it was succinct expression of the ideas that were formulated in many of his earlier works, beginning with the books "Why do people fight?" (1917) and "The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism" (1920).

He once again justified his favorite idea: human behavior is determined not only by the material, economic motives. Must be aware of the deep passions, desires, to move people, such as ambition, greed, vanity, envy, rivalry, etc. They can cause wars. Despite his advanced age, his scientific and social activity not only does not fade, but it seems to be increasing.

In 1952, 80-year-old Russell married for the fourth time on his old friend, the novelist Edith U.S. Finn. They moved to North Wales main business of his life the last twenty years become an active struggle for peace. He participates in conferences and demonstrations of peace. In 1954 he tested a hydrogen bomb. In the same year, made public a document known as the "Declaration of Einstein - Russell." In it, in particular, said: "We want it to be understood both in the East and the West. We demand that the governments of the world to recognize and declare publicly that they will not seek to achieve their goals through war. And we call them, in accordance with this, seek peaceful ways to resolve the differences that exist between them ... "

The fact that in acute situations 1950-1960-ies confrontation did not turn into a nuclear catastrophe, is the contribution of all the peace, including Russell, a member of the movement for nuclear disarmament (1958) and "Committee hundred" (1960). In 1961, 89-year-old Nobel laureate for participation in one of the antiwar actions are sentenced to short prison terms. His voice sounds authoritative in the world. In 1962, during the Cuban Missile Crisis Russell speaks directly to Kennedy and Khrushchev urged to immediately enter into negotiations. Bertrand Russell became the name and password pass into the offices of the powerful. He corresponded, talked, debated with leaders of major countries. And as an individual was not less known than they are. "In many countries, in which there were no civil liberties or who were under the patronage of powerful neighbors - wrote Farley - Russell revered national hero."

His straightforwardness prevent him being in the thick of the political struggle.

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