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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)

For the campaign against conscription Russell first fined, then imprisoned.

The government refuses to issue a passport to visit the U.S. to lecture at Harvard University. He condemns the U.S. entry into the war, warning that American soldiers who arrived in England, can be used as strikebreakers.

In the autumn of 1917, the news of the Bolshevik uprising in Petrograd, he comes to the conclusion that "the world in which we live will disappear. He will burn in the fire of their own fiery passions of his ashes will be reborn a new world, full of hope, in whose eyes there is a light of faith. "

In April 1918, Russell at the request of American publisher completes the book "Path to Freedom". In it, he analyzes the various theories of conversion from moderately socialist society to the extreme - extremist, anarchist. His second went to prison - this time for six months. There, he creates another work "Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy" (1919). He spoke warmly of those with whom you shared conclusion, wrote that they did not lower morally those who are on the loose.

During the war, Russell refuses to "unearned income" - money received by inheritance, and donates them to various kinds of training and educational goals. From now on he will live only on fees for books and lectures. So was Russell in 1920 on the eve of a trip to Russia with a delegation of the Labour Party. He spent in our country about six weeks - from early May to mid-June. Had an almost hour conversation with Lenin, met briefly with Trotsky and Kamenev, met with Gorky. Traveled to Petrograd, sailed along the Volga from Nizhny Novgorod to Astrakhan. Communicated with the peasants, workers, intellectuals, and studied the situation in industry, agriculture, education and culture.

He watched Russia after two and a half years after the October uprising, when not even the Civil War ended, the economy has been destroyed and the functioning of the military regime of communism in its most severe form of repression and violent seizure of food from the peasants. This trip resulted Russell was famous book "The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism" (1920). He was convinced that the Russian revolution is comparable in importance to the French Revolution.

Russell, a person independent in judgment, sought to study the problem thoroughly and present a balanced view. He had understood the aspirations of ordinary people in Russia, exhausted by war and blockade, hosted by the Entente, which he condemned the actions. Loyal to the ideals of social justice, Russell could not help but recognize that many slogans proclaimed by the Bolsheviks, who promised peace, land, prosperity, were consonant with the aspirations of the poor. Objectives of the Bolsheviks, who sought to build a society of justice, he was in many ways similar. But staunch Democrat and a liberal, a champion of freedom, advocate of reform of the parliamentary system and methods of the Bolsheviks were unacceptable.

He could not agree with the revolutionary violence and victims. Could not be reconciled with the dogmatism of the Bolsheviks, their intolerance of any dissent. Could not accept the suppression of freedom of the individual, to approve a total centralization. Such methods can not build a society of justice, says the scientist.

Russell's book value is that by analyzing it in the situation in Russia, it tends to look at the future. Many of his predictions and warnings affect relevance. "I think we must admit two things: First, many of the worst evils of capitalism may remain under communism, secondly, deliverance from evil can not be fast, as it requires a change in the mindset of the average person." By focusing on the economy, the material factor, it can not be absolute, the author believes. Must take into account the psychological habits, traditions of men. This idea goes through the many works of Russell. She will be in his Nobel lecture.

In a book about the rise of Russia mentioned revolutionary wave in the East. Now Russell wanted to witness this new factor in world politics. In 1921-1922, he traveled to the East, and has lectured at Peking University. China attracted his attention: there in 1911 there was an anti-imperialist revolution, the emperor was banished, came to power, the KMT led by Sun Yat-sen in the vast country, with its seemingly petrified way of life began to happen profound social and economic changes. The outcome of this trip - the book "Problems of China" (1922).

In 1921, Russell married a second time (his first marriage was childless) Dora Winifred Black, who was his secretary during his trip to Russia and wrote a chapter for his book "Art and Education". They had a son first, then a daughter. Apparently, the appearance of children at the venerable scholar who turned a half-century milestone, awakened in him a keen interest in the problems of upbringing and education. Russell opens an experimental school, and the scope of its research is expanded to include a and pedagogy. Brainchild became the book "On Education" (1926), "Marriage and morals" (1929), "Education and social order" (1932). His pedagogical theories spring from the philosophical views of human nature. The goal of education for Russell - the protection of freedom and artistic development.

Russell is concerned about the fate of science and in the XX century. In 1925 he released the brochure "Icarus", which argues against theses English biologist John Haldane. The brochure "Daedalus" Haldane, using the image of the mythological hero, a skilled architect, expressed an optimistic belief that science will be exclusively for the benefit of mankind. Russell, resorting to another image of the same myth, Icarus, by contrast, warned of the dangers lurking in the rapid growth of knowledge and technology.

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