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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)

English philosopher, logician, mathematician, public figure. The founder of the English neo-realism and neo. Philosophy, by Russell borrows its problems of natural science, paves the way for him and should logically analyze and explain the principles and concepts of science. The world consists of sensory data logically inextricably linked with each other.

Nobel Prize for Literature. Major works "Principles of Mathematics" (with Whitehead, 1910-1913), "Problems of Philosophy" (1912), "History of Western Philosophy" (1940), "Human cognition. Its Scope and Limits "(1948), etc.

Bertrand Russell belonged to an old aristocratic family of politicians, scientists and intellectuals. He was born May 18, 1872 in Reyvensk-rofte in Wales and was the youngest of three sons in the family of John Russell, Viscount Amberley and Katherine Russell. This family played a prominent role in the political life of the country from the XVI century.

Future scientist father was a member of parliament and was friends with the philosopher John Stuart Mill, who became a father planted his son Bertrand. Father and was regarded as a free-released book "Analysis of religious faith," as a man of radical views, argued in favor of equal rights for women, which cost him a seat in parliament.

Was a remarkable person and mother of Bertrand in her salon going philosophers and fashionable artists. Russell lost his parents early, he was two years old when his mother and sister died, and another year and a half passed away father. In 1876, a four-Bertrand and his brother moved to Pembroke Lodge, the estate of his grandfather, where his grandmother was the mistress Countess Russell, also an outstanding woman.

Future philosopher was initially educated at home under the supervision of the Swiss and German tutors. At age 11 he became interested in Euclidean geometry, it was a passion for "all-consuming as the first love." In his youth, he avidly read, accumulated knowledge and a variety of extremely puzzled grandmother statement that is able to accept only those religious dogmas that get scientific confirmation. Later in his views, he was close to atheism.

Young years were spent in abundance, in communion with many outstanding people. Bernard Shaw rolled it on the bike long before he became a famous writer of plays, Beatrice Webb, one of the ideologists laborism, welcomed him as his disciple, which came into the Fabian Society. 18-year-old Russell was admitted to Trinity College of Cambridge University, where he began to specialize in two seemingly compatible difficult mathematics and philosophy.

In 1894, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree, and three years later defended his thesis "On the basis of geometry." In Cambridge, Russell became friends with Alfred North Whitehead, the famous mathematician, logician and philosopher, his future co-author. He has engaged in philosophical questions and shtudiruet works of Hegel, Hume, John Locke, as well as contemporary philosopher George Moore. Erudition, extensive knowledge in various fields, he tirelessly accumulated lifetime, Russell made a unique personality.

He, in particular, made with works dedicated to such figures of philosophical thought, Leibniz, Bergson, John Stuart Mill, researched the history of Western philosophy. Proper same philosophical views differed Russell eclecticism.

After graduating from Cambridge, Russell spent some time in the diplomatic service, first in Paris, then in Berlin, where he studied economics and collected material for the first major work "The German Social-Democracy" (1896). Analyzing the activities of the German socialists, led by Liebknecht and Bebel, he first addresses the problem of reconstructing the world on the principles of democratic socialism and reformism.

Russell's fame as a scientist and public figure is growing In 1896 he lectured at the London School of Economics. Then for the first time going to the U.S. to perform at universities. It becomes a milestone for 1900, when he was involved in a major philosophical congress in Paris, met with a number of venerable scientists. Written in collaboration with Whitehead's book "Principles of Mathematics" (1903) brought him international recognition. Further strengthened their scientific authority Russell another collaborative effort, now recognized as a classic - "Foundations of Mathematics" (1910-1913).

He was elected president of the Aristotelian Society in England (1911). Even then he becomes a champion of women's rights. As a member of the Fabian Society, Russell, along with his first wife Alice Whitall Pearsall Smith was promoting socialist ideas in their "soft" version of reformist. He even put forward his candidacy for parliament, but liberals, whom he considers himself denied his support, citing his close position to atheism in religious matters.

When the First World War, Russell age was not subject to conscription. Riley chauvinist propaganda, overtaking the country, he is actively engaged in pacifist activities, becoming a member of the "Anti-conscription." It required much courage and civil quarrel with many friends standing on the positions of "defense of the fatherland." In addition, he is deprived of a place at Trinity College. His anti-war and social views are presented in the works of "Principles of social reconstruction" and "War and Justice" (1916).

In 1917 he published a small book in the U.S. "My political ideals." Problems of socialism and capitalism, as well as a reasonable arrangement of the world he saw it through the prism of the key philosophical thesis all higher values ​​eventually closed in humans. Only worthy political goal - to ensure as far as practicable the most complete development of natural creative abilities of the person, as well as to curb the power of ambition, greed and conservatism.

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