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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Sergei Nikolaevich Bulgakov (1871-1944)

Economist, philosopher, theologian. Of legal Marxism, which Bulgakov tried to combine neo-Kantianism, moved to religious philosophy, then to Orthodox theology. Major works "Philosophy of Economy" (1912), "On God-manhood. Trilogy "(1933-1945)," Philosophy of the name "(published in 1953).

Sergei Nikolaevich Bulgakov was born on 16 (28) June 1871 in Livny (Oryol province). His father was a hereditary priest nastoyatechem modest church cemetery. Childhood memories of the beauty of the liturgy, merges with the impressions of Russian nature, became a source of profound experiences of the future philosopher.

"What I loved and revered the most in his life - not screaming noble modesty and truth, the highest beauty and nobility of chastity, it's all I have been given in the perception of the homeland."

Since 1884, studying at the Bulgakov Orel seminary. Juniors religious crisis coincides with the frustration caused by the State-owned spirit seminary education. Permanently moving away from religion, Bulgakov interested in humanitarian and economic sciences. In 1890 he entered the law faculty of Moscow University.

"I was attracted philology, philosophy, literature, I came to the Faculty of Law of alien to me in a sense to those to save the fatherland from tsarist tyranny, of course, ideological."

In search of holistic worldview Bulgakov becomes a Marxist (like many young intellectuals, entered public life in the wake of disappointment "economic romanticism" Populism).

After graduation (1894), it is left to the department of political economy and statistics to prepare for a professorship. From 1895, he began his teaching activities, revealing outstanding teaching ability Bulgakov in Moscow Technical School, he teaches political economy. The publication of his sociological and political economy articles, come to the attention of the scientific community. And changes occur in your personal life.

In 1898 Bulgakov marries Helena Tokmakova. After receiving a scholarship for a two-year internship in the West, the bride and groom go to Germany. They occupy a modest apartment on Klopshtokshtrasse (there in December 1898 in Bulgakov's family had their first child - a daughter). Go for a short time in Paris, London, Geneva, Zurich, Venice, but the basic material for his scientific work in Germany collects Bulgakov. Here he is able to check the results of research in personal communication with representatives of the German Social Democracy. By this time, Bulgakov becomes authoritative theoretician of Marxism, known not only in Russia, but also in Germany.

The fruit of his scientific research has become a two-volume work "Capitalism and Agriculture", which was based on the Master's thesis is protected. The main idea of ​​the specifics of agriculture was the justification for which is characteristic of the decentralization of capital, contrary to the general Marxist formula.

After an internship abroad, dating Bebel and Kautsky, 1901-1906 years Bulgakov lived in Kiev, where is a professor of political economy of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute and assistant professor of the University of Kiev. This fruitful period of his work, one after another out bright items were subsequently two volumes of "Two Cities." At the same time there is a fracture, leading Bulgakov "from Marxism to idealism." Collection of articles under this title, published in 1903, became the symbol of an era of the Russian intelligentsia, denoting the transition from its hopes on the scientific method of Marxism and its revolutionary potential to seek a synthesis of the scientific heritage of world philosophy.

The book contains articles were Marxist plan and avtooproverzhenie. In the preface to the collection Bulgakov admits: "I was anxious to serve the faith and truth of Marxism, trying as far as the my skills, to reflect the attack on him and strengthen vulnerable places, and were devoted to this task - directly or indirectly - absolutely all of my work. But it is against my will, and even in spite of it, appeared that trying to justify and strengthen their faith, I continuously undermined her. "

Kant Bulgakov was always "No doubt," and he "thought it necessary to verify Marx Kant, and not vice versa." Even in the "time of greatest hobbies Marxism" Bulgakov does not forget the problem of evil and violence. According to him, the solution found by Vladimir Soloviev. About this he wrote "What does modern consciousness philosophy Solovyov?" Bulgakov convinced: "The system is the most sonorous Solovyov chord which only heard in the history of philosophy." Alpha and omega teachings Solovyov - positive unity.

Bulgakov helps clarify this concept of world consists of individuals, and Leibniz thought so, but the latter do not have individual contact with each other (monads devoid of "windows"), do not know about each other. Solovyov they are bound by ties of love. Marx is nothing like that. Hence the cavalier attitude to the person, people, for Marx - algebraic signs, their purpose - to be a means. "For him the problem of individuality, is indecomposable world of the human personality, its integral nature does not exist." Marx dissolved individual socially.

In the tenth anniversary of the death of Solovyov Bulgakov speech "Nature in the philosophy of Vladimir Solovyov," which raises the question of the transformation of the world, comparing ideas with ideas Solovyov Schelling. "In effective practical consciousness of mankind anew felt problem of the relation to the cosmos." So Bulgakov seizes cosmism idea. Along with Dostoevsky and Soloviev he has a new coach - Nikolai Fyodorov.

In 1907 he published the first volume of the "Philosophy of the common cause," Bulgakov responds to it a detailed article "Mysterious thinker." "Convinced Fedorov, God created not the best, the world is already finished, and only the best potential, which may be the best, but with the participation of human labor." In this world, the whole of man, but only through a man, the man - an instrument of deity.

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