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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Ronkin Shestov (1866-1938)

In the center of this confession - Shestov conviction, supported by evidence Dam, Pascal, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, that the way we all go and childish you are proud, is the way of slavery and death, and not the path of freedom and life. This journey began in Athens, proclaimed the sovereignty of speculative truths, and has led us away from Jerusalem with his audacious faith in the possibility of the impossible.

Modern man, as well as our entire civilization, unable to admit that he is a slave to the deified reason, tyrannically ruling over life - to serve the scientific thinking, the "universal and necessary truths" (it does not matter Is this the truth of idealism, materialism or atheism). The "objective" laws and impersonal moral principles. The highest achievement of human - unquestioning obedience to the laws of reason and autocratic generated mind morality. After all, the mind - and he alone - defines the true boundary between reality and dream, between good and evil, proper and improper.

"Even God himself, if he wants to get the predicate of existence, must apply for them to reason. And mind, perhaps he will welcome and this predicate, and maybe even rather likely to refuse. " That is why the wait in vain for help from philosophy and philosophers today Job. His suffering, screaming, cursing them for only a single "special case" does not change anything in the general laws of the universe, with mathematical precision mind set.

Two always greater than one. One plus one - two. And if modern Job still persists, refusing to bow before these immutable truths, if he claims to be one and only one in mathematics equals two constantly, but in reality, it also happens that equals and three and five, and zero if he continued to curse and yell about their "human, all too human" right, then, perhaps, and his "cries the philosopher will explore with the same indifference and serenity with which he explores the perpendiculars plane circles."

In 1928, on the advice of the philosopher Edmund Husserl, six starts studying creativity Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard (Shestov Kierkegaard calls it) - the forerunner of "existential philosophy» XX century. Striking coincidence important starting positions, the way the final conclusions Shestov ideas Kierkegaard rebelled against speculative philosophy of Hegel and also seek the support of "private thinker Job" - all this helped Shestov even sharper articulate their ideas.

Now the key word, reference symbol for it becomes the word "faith," "freedom from all fear, freedom from coercion," "mad man's struggle for the impossible, and the struggle to overcome the impossible."

France Shestov lived until his death. Until 1930 he lived in Paris in the years 1930-1938 - in a Paris suburb, where he led a very secluded life. Since June 1921 he became a member Shestov Russian academic team.

In February 1922, he was appointed professor (1 hour per week) History and Philology Department of the Institute of Slavic Studies Russian at the University of Paris. Here are six almost 16 years taught free courses in philosophy ("free" - because I always read and spoke only about the problems of philosophy, which occupied him at the moment). "Russian philosophy of the XIX century", "Dostoevsky's philosophical ideas and Pascal," "The basic ideas of ancient philosophy," "Russian and European philosophical thought", "Vladimir Solovyov and religious philosophy", "Dostoevsky and Kierkegaard" "Religious and philosophical ideas of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky." During these years, Shestov works published translations into European languages, he gave public lectures and presentations in Germany and France, in 1936 at the invitation of the cultural department of labor federation visited Palestine, and has lectured in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa.

Shestov reputation among French intellectuals was very high. Since 1925 he was a member of the presidium of Nietzsche Society, of Kantian society. In December 1937 Ronkin seriously ill (intestinal bleeding), after recovery of force could not recover fully and soon stopped lecturing. In October 1938, six became ill with bronchitis, which turned into tuberculosis. Thinker died Nov. 20 at the clinic Boileau, is buried in the New Cemetery in Boulogne, a suburb of Paris, in the family vault.

Poles - one of the most original thinkers of the early XX century, anticipating the later main ideas of existentialism. According to people who knew Shestov, he did not like to write, nurtured their thoughts in solitary walks and only then forced himself to "fix" them on paper; language of his works features classic simplicity, precision and emotion.

The main theme of philosophy Shestov - individual tragedy of human existence, the experience of hopelessness Shestov rejects the possibility of rational judgments about the fair sense of the universe, does not believe in logic as the only way of knowledge of and tries to find other forms of penetrating the mysteries of the world. Knowledge of them is considered as a source of the Fall of the human race came under the authority of the "heartless and necessary truths" and loss of freedom. People - the victim of the laws of reason and morality, sacrifice and universal compulsory Shestov rebelling against the dictates of reason over the sphere of life experiences, struggles for identity against the power of the total, for a unique individual. Liberation from the shackles of necessity, from the laws of logic and morality Shestov seeking God, he wants to go to heaven, to the authentic life that is beyond the knowledge of good and evil. In essence, the main theme of reflections Shestov - conflict of biblical revelation and Greek philosophy. Faith gives him the opportunity to break through to the mysteries of the world and their comprehension.

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