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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Ronkin Shestov (1866-1938)

Petersburg and Kiev writers, philosophers, preachers of the "new religious consciousness" - D. Merezhkovskys, Z. Gippius, Rozanov, A. Remizov, N. Berdyaev, S. Bulgakov, G. Chelpanov. Poles publish their articles in their journals or edited collections, one after another out of his book, "Dostoevsky and Nietzsche (philosophy tragedy)" (1903), "The Apotheosis of groundlessness (Experience adogmaticheskogo thinking)" (1905), "Beginning and ends "(1908)," The Great eves "(1911).

In this first decade of the creative activities of six does not separate from the philosophy of literary criticism. Calling writer and thinker calling for him coincide Shakespeare, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, for it not only great artists, but also a teacher of life, the conductors in the world of undiscovered revelations about the beginning and the end of human existence. In a dialogue with them and formed his own method Shestov, who replaced him hateful dialectic ("dialectics imperious only on general concepts and can not keep up with surging, capricious life"), this method - "wandering heart to heart" dialogic accommodation "foreign word ", which is already affected by itself generates an infinite range of relationships with the author's word.

One of the best works of this period - the article "Creation out of nothing" (1905), dedicated to Chekhov. In contrast to the conventional view of Chekhov as "soft, gentle poems", "twilight poet sentiment" and "singer sullen people" - six characterizes Chekhov as a writer Ruthless and recognizes his "amazing feat with a single touch, even breathing, look to kill everything live and are proud people. " Book "The Great eves" (1911) ended the first - "literary criticism" - Lev Shestov period of creativity.

In the years 1898-1902 he lived in Berlin Shestov, Italy, Switzerland, bumping against the clock in St. Petersburg and Kiev. In November 1903 due to the illness of his father returned to Kiev, where he had family affairs. In the autumn of 1908 Lev Shestov settled with his family in Freiburg (Germany), March 1910 he lived mainly in Switzerland, in a small town Coppet on Lake Geneva, doing classical European philosophy and theology. There are six discovered a new hero - Martin Luther studied the works of medieval mystics and scholastics, multivolume history of the German dogmatic teachings, medieval church, Lutheranism, during this period did not write.

In 1913 he began work on a new book - «Sola Fide» («Only by faith"), but did not have time to finish it due to the outbreak of the First World War, was forced to return to Russia (started manuscript remained abroad in 1920, already in exile, Shestov managed to get it partially chapters of this manuscript and expressed in it went into his other books or have been published separately, but the whole manuscript «Sola Fide» was published after the death of a thinker in Paris 1966).

In the summer of 1914 Shestovo returned to Russia and settled in Moscow Plyushchikha. Now, he often speaks in literary and philosophical societies, support friendship with Viacheslav. Ivanov, M. Gershenzon, N. Berdyaev, S. Bulgakov, sisters Gertsyk, G. Chelpanov, Shpet. His articles printed magazine "Russian Thought", "Problems of Philosophy and Psychology." October Revolution Shestov adopted and did not understand (his 1920 pamphlet "What is Bolshevism" - the only thing that was written by him on the subject, - pushed his myopic helplessness and triviality judgments even fans of his talent).

After the death of his only son at the front in June 1918, six moved to Kiev, where he teaches the course "History of Ancient Philosophy" at the People's University, as well as speaker and public lectures. In October 1919, the family moved from Kiev to Yalta hoping to go out abroad. At the request of Bulgakov and professor of the Kiev Theological Academy I. Chetverikova and notoriety thanks to their labor six was appointed assistant professor at the University of Tauride. However, in early 1920, together with his family, he went from Yalta to Sevastopol, then - in Constantinople, and then through Italy to Paris.

Paris period - the most productive in the creative destiny Lev Shestov. He has been working intensively teaches a course at the Sorbonne on Russian religious philosophy, makes presentations and lectures, published articles in major French magazines, takes an active part in the editions and translations of his books. During these years, he has personally met with "political thinkers" of our century - T. Mann, A. Gide, Martin Buber, Albert Einstein, Husserl, Martin Heidegger, L. Levy-Bruhl, M. Scheler, Andre Malraux.

In Paris, the most important books were written Shestov "On the scales of Job (wandering in the souls)" (1929), "Kierkegaard and the Existential Philosophy" (in French in 1936, the first Russian edition appeared posthumously in 1939), ", Athens and Jerusalem "(French and German translations came in 1938, the first Russian edition in 1951). And although the main thing in these books - the fundamental philosophical problems, and the remaining six are loyal subjects chosen at the beginning of his literary career. For it is still important source of his whole life tormented his question to which we have come together with all of our modern European civilization, where we're going? ". While it was fun, cause and effect are all explained to them was better than God, for they never reproached. But how to live with them in sorrow? When misfortune, one after another, fall on the person when poverty, illness, resentment replaced wealth, health, power? Is Job, scabby, lie on manure with terrible memories of the death of all the family? ".

This passage - from the first book Shestov "Shakespeare and his critic Brandes." The book "On the scales of Job," written thirty years later, not so much the answer as "confession of faith" of the modern Job, and have not reconciled with the consolations and promises priests Mind, Morals and Progress.

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