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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Ronkin Shestov (1866-1938)

Russian existentialist philosopher and writer. In his philosophy, rich in paradoxes and aphorisms, rebelled against the dictates of reason (universally valid truths) and oppression obligatory moral norms over sovereign personality. Contrasted the traditional philosophy "philosophy of tragedy" (the center of which - the absurdity of human existence), and philosophical speculation - a revelation that God Almighty bestowed. Poles anticipated main ideas existentialism. Major works: "The Apotheosis of groundlessness" (1905), "Speculation and revelation" (published in 1964).

Ronkin poles (real full name Yehuda Leib Schwartzman) was born on January 31 (February 12) in 1866 in Kiev. Father, Isaac Moiseevich Schwartzman was a big merchant, merchant 1st guild. Coming from a poor environment, he created his own big deal - "draper warehouses Isaac Schwartzman." Notable outstanding knowledge of Hebrew Literature and enjoyed great prestige in the Jewish community. Son, however, remained a stranger to all these interests father.

Trade and financial affairs of his father for many years were agonizing "karma" Shestov. At age 12, he was kidnapped by the anarchist organization within six months waited in vain for him ransom from his father Shestov, then, he had already become well-known writer, was forced every day to sit at the expense and until the revolution disassemble cash litigation between the numerous members of the family clan .

Education Shestov began in Kiev, but finished high school in Moscow in 1884 he entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow University, then moved on to law school, one semester studying in Berlin, has graduated from the University in Kiev. Dissertation his "State of the working class in Russia" was banned for publication censorship. So, do not become a doctor of jurisprudence, Shestov was recorded in class lawyers, though never addressed the attorney's career.

After graduation, in the years 1890-1891, did his military service as a volunteer, then a short time was an assistant attorney in Moscow. V1891, six returned to Kiev to help his father. It was a period of intense literary and philosophical studies, the first literary attempts, in-depth study of William Shakespeare, who had a great influence on Shestov. In Kiev newspapers published his critical notes on Shakespeare and Vl. Solovyov, as well as several articles on financial and economic issues.

Six participating in the trading business of his father until the end of 1895, when sick with acute nervous disorder caused probably the oppressive atmosphere of the enterprise. It was a time of profound despair Lev Isaakovich its internal catastrophes. V1896, he went abroad for treatment, visited Vienna, Carlsbad, Berlin, Munich, Paris Finally, in early 1897 he moved from Berlin to Rome.

The restaurant he was overtaken by Russian student tour. We talked, and he is to arrive earlier for two days served her guide. Some tragic trait in his face-struck girl students medichku Anna, and when her comrades went on, she remained a nurse, support an unknown young Jew. Perhaps she really has kept Shestov, but maybe later and not just her calmness, sobriety and self-sacrifice served him support.

In February Ronkin Shestov and Orthodox Russian girl Anna Eleazarovna Berezovskaja married. Religious intolerance father made many years to keep this marriage a secret and let the family return Shestov in Russia. Within 10 years Shestovo lived apart, in different cities, to hide from her parents marriage. Shestov father apparently never knew about him, and his mother, he admitted after his father's death. According to Russian law, this marriage was invalid, and children born in it - illegitimate.

In 1897, at Shestovo daughter, Tatiana, in 1900 - Natalia. With the consent of the father the children were baptized. Only in autumn 1908 Shestov reunited with my family. But back to his creative life. In 1897, Lev Shestov graduated first book, "Shakespeare and his critic Brandes" (1898) and started working on the book "Welcome to the doctrine c. Tolstoy and Nietzsche. Philosophy and preach "(1899). Both books have remained almost unnoticed criticism Shestov puts social issues, it is occupied primarily ethical and metaphysical problems. That's why he raised in his first book against the positivist-philistine interpretation of Shakespeare's Danish critic G. Brandes.

Shestov outraged that "Brandes does not hear" The time, "and because Shakespeare did not prevent him from sleeping. Hence moralistic tastelessness in relation to the tragic depths of life, "we feel with Hamlet," "we experience with Shakespeare." If Shakespeare's horror and the catastrophic human existence led to the awakening of either, or to death, then Brandeis is just a pretext to talk about the "art" and "moral" virtues of literature.

Even stronger protest against the deification of morality expressed in the second book Shestov. Copyright philosophical drama experienced by Nietzsche as "shock", "internal coup", "I felt that the world is completely tipped over" - he recalled later. "Well - brotherly love - we now know from the experience of Nietzsche - not God." "Woe to those who love, who do not have anything above compassion." "Nietzsche opened the way. Need to look that up compassion, beyond good. Need to seek God. "

This thesis is fundamental to the future of Lev Shestov. All his subsequent articles and books animated one all-consuming passion - the struggle with idols of philosophy, morality, religion, or science, claiming place last Judge. True, the first battle is conducted in line with Shestov romantic aesthetics. However, in contrast to the romantic or symbolist, six recognizes no hidden "true nature", as if lurking under the "crust of substance" or "veil of ordinariness." Identify the fundamental principles of human existence means to him than double the world into a false "here" and a true "out there", but fearless detection catastrophic illogical, meaninglessness, the absurdity of the prevailing order of things, based on the rationalistic and scientistic interpretation worldview.

In 1901 Sergei Diaghilev Shestov proposed cooperation in the journal Russian modernists "World of Art." Since that time Shestov rapprochement with the St.

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