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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863-1945)

Vladimir makes the final choice - he devotes himself to scientific work and Russia is not going to leave, although there is "all restrained terror."

Vernadsky gives lectures and prepares it for publication; acquainted with the news of the world of science and the writings of eminent scholars, discussing scientific problems with Rutherford Langevin. He publishes "Geochemistry", ready to print one of its major classical works - "Biosphere". But most importantly, it creates the doctrine of the noosphere (from the Greek: "sphere of mind"), which will develop and improve until the last days of his life.

Vernadsky meets philosophers Edward Leroy and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a little later meets up with the idea of ​​the noosphere, primarily through lectures Leroy, published in 1928 in the book "The Origin and Evolution of the human mind." It is in the writings of Leroy coined the term "noosphere". Vladimir Ivanovich represented as a sequence of spiritual teachings of the noosphere: biochemical approach to the biosphere, he proposed Parisian audience fertilizes French philosophers thought, take the next step, already adopted, in turn, themselves. Noospheric ideas Vernadsky developed mainly in the 1930s, primarily in the "Scientific Thought as a Planetary Phenomenon", which was conceived as a sort of huge philosophical preface to the final, "ledger" "The chemical structure of the Earth's biosphere and its environment", (both works were published only in 1960-1970s).

Authors noosphere theory introduced the question of the origin and nature of life, and then the man in general cosmic process complexity of matter (the ever-growing desire for compounds of elements: atoms, molecules, cells, multicellular ...). Life on Earth - a clear manifestation of this universal tendency. Where the matter seems to us "dead", it is actually only "dozhiznenna", it dawns potency become alive. In this sense, life - a cosmic phenomenon, since it lies in the very thread depths of matter.

Humanization (hominization) next life, same great leap planetary and space development, as quickening (vitalization) matter. In other words, the appearance of man, further, qualitatively new deployment tasks of the biosphere itself, and beyond it the cosmic process. Succession associated with the entire evolutionary chain of life, man is nevertheless in the world as a whole is the original that it can not even be considered a separate species or even the kingdom of nature, and "new order of reality" as broad and independent as life itself in the face of inanimate matter.

Man - in relation to nature, to the biosphere, with all the physical introduction into them - it ravnoznachaschee them "save things" phenomenon, a new "shell" of the planet, "a new sphere." Develops labor, social and creative activity of man, he settles on the ground, growing means of communication multiply ways of storing and transmitting information (and in fact at the heart of the foundations of all these achievements is only one spiritual force - the human mind!), Human specificity increasingly expressed in this particular field of "human reason." Through the continuity from one generation to the dissemination of knowledge and skills (and it began with the first fundamental discoveries and creation of man: tools, fire, domestication of animals, agriculture) through philosophical, moral, religious quest, art, science is already a kind of collective cephalization, increasing the amount of common terrestrial brain.

For a true celebration of the noosphere, according to Vernadsky, required such preconditions, which the world has not yet reached: "Two things are therefore prerequisites replacement anthroposphere noosphere: the domination of man over nature and foreign domination in man himself powers of the mind over the lower instincts."

As a scientist and naturalist Vernadsky did much for the objective study of the prevailing geological and historical time reality noosphere as an outstanding thinker, he foresaw the essence of the "noosphere as the goal," the problem and its driving forces. Tremendous change order of things, which is derived from human intrusion into nature, the scientist put on the exact scientific basis, introducing the concept of cultural biogeochemical energy.

In the XX century, according to Vernadsky, mature considerable material preconditions for the transition to the noosphere, the implementation of the ideal consciously active evolution of this universality of mankind, "complete capture human biosphere for life" when the whole earth to the toughest places transformed and populated, people penetrated into all its elements - earth, water, air. The second factor - the oneness of humanity, when creating similar forms of scientific, technical, consumer civilization, the most remote corners of the earth come together fast means of transportation, effective lines of communication and information sharing. The third factor - omassovlenie social, historical life, when "the masses are becoming increasing to consciously influence the course of government and public affairs." And finally - the growth of science, turning it into a powerful geological force, the main force of the creation of the noosphere, a potency tayaschuyu development virtually limitless.

In early 1926 Vernadsky returned to Leningrad. Russian reality in his unpleasantly surprised. Back at the academy, he focused on the activities of the Radium Institute, the Commission for the Study of Natural Productive Forces of Russia. Very quickly it goes out of print job "Biosphere", in which he justifies the idea that "the biosphere - it biokosnyh natural body, which is characterized by a regular organization of movement of matter and energy under the influence of living matter." Coming 2000 copies, the book was a huge success, not only in research but also in the broader cultural circles.

Huge forces go on the organization of the Institute, to obtain for him the necessary equipment, base biogeochemical laboratory - a prototype of the Institute of living matter.

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