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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863-1945)

Russian scientist and thinker. The founder of modern complex of Earth Sciences - Geochemistry, biogeochemistry, radiology, hydrogeology, etc. In the center of his scientific and philosophical interests - development of a holistic theory of the biosphere, living matter and the evolution of the biosphere into the noosphere. Vernadsky - one of the founders anthropocosmism - a system in which natural (space) and the human tendency to the development of science merge into a single entity. Major works: "Biogeochemical essays" (1922-1932, 1940), "The chemical structure of the Earth's biosphere and its environment" (1965), "living matter" (1978).

Future scientist was born March 12, 1863 in St. Petersburg, the son of a professor of political economy Ivan Vernadsky from his second marriage to Anna Petrovna K., daughter malorossiyskogo landowner, former singer in the youth choir and vocal teacher.

When Vladimir was only five years old, the family moved to the home of his father and mother for Ukraine. His childhood spent in Kharkov, Vernadsky considered one of the happiest periods of life. It was then that he did not just see nature in all its natural and accustomed to it. Big influences were close friends. This nurse with her kindness, worldly wisdom and naturalness of cultural and religious traditions, and uncle Yevgraf Karalenka Maksimovic (writer VGKorolenko was a second cousin of Vladimir Ivanovich) with its imaginative enthusiasm evolutionary theory and poetry of the sky and space, and older half-brother Nicholas, with its unusually broad talent that for the younger became the first teacher in the world of culture, and indulge his sister, and a loving mother and father, who was able to instill a love of country and respect for other countries and peoples.

However, childhood Vernadsky were not continuous holiday. Serious illness of his father, nearly costing him his life, and another shock - Death of Nicholas - caused deep feelings and thoughts. "My notes and memories of 1874" - this name are his record in a year when he loses his brother and begins to systematically keep a diary. They have a confession: "Yes, there are two things that are hard to bear - sorrow has befallen the family, and the loss of the Fatherland." Oddly, but perhaps, in the experience of this time is the deep cause of his future wholehearted turning to science. It turns out that a child was endowed with strange Vladimir scares him qualities: he suffered from hereditary lunacy, was given to him in dreams and reality evokes images of loved ones, including the deceased, and a bright, hallucinatory form and enter into contact with them. Immediately after the death of his brother, with whom he has joined such an intimate, emotional connection, he first "out of fear" (his own explanation in the later diaries) became strongly suppress such a mystical receptors.

Studying at school, first Kharkov, and then St. Petersburg, did not cause him enthusiasm and remained in memory in connection with a steadfast sense of freedom. He found an outlet in reading and conversations with his father and friends. Two themes are most worried Vernadsky: the fate and future of the Slavs (in those years was a Russian-Turkish war) and environmental studies (gymnasium gave natural sciences in very limited and primitive form). Deciding that "in two ways to deepen impossible," fascination with the world, he opened the pages of books Humboldt, Darwin W, Vladimir makes his choice. Student natural branch of physics and mathematics faculty of St. Petersburg University Vernadsky becomes eighteen years. And one more luck in life - teachers. They were the people creatively free, strong-willed, decent chemists D.Mendeleyev and A. Butlerov, physiologist Ivan Sechenov, botanist A. Beketov especially Dokuchaev, a soil scientist who gave impetus to the creation of synthetic natural science, connecting in nature living and dead. Besides the compulsory subjects Vernadsky attends lectures in other departments; outlines an extensive program of self-education, which includes a significant block of social sciences history, demographics, philosophy, political economy. He is interested in non-standard concept in science, history of science, artistic creativity, religious studies, he works in the scientific and literary society, participates in expeditions and field observations.

In the university environment, he finds people congenial. Circle, which eventually became known as the "Brotherhood" was formed by the end of Vladimir University, and thirty-five years of its members were in constant correspondence and met, when the opportunity presented, December 30. In "Brotherhood" included except Vernadsky Orientalist C. Oldenburg, his brother, teacher, educator Oldenburg, writer and public figure D. Shakhovskoy historians Kornilov and J. Graves, geobotanist A. Krasnov (Comrade Vernadsky still on some high school years ) and others. By mug joined a group of girls involved in the publication and distribution of literature for the people (among them was Natalia Egorovna Staritskaya soon became the wife of Vernadsky). The most important rules of their lives, they declared: "1. Work as much as possible. 2. Consume (themselves) as little as possible. 3. On other people's woes look like on theirs. " It is noteworthy that these principles are members of the group observe holy life.

After graduating Vernadsky becomes the custodian of the Mineralogical Cabinet of St. Petersburg University. His research interests - mineralogy, crystallography, soil science. At the same time, he participates in the meetings of scientific and literary society and heads the Council united university fraternities. He cares about the political problems of Russia and the unacceptable rate of the reign of Alexander III. As a result, followed by denunciation and threats of resignation.

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