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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » John Dewey (1859-1952)

The scientific method, says Dewey, - this is the main problem-solving method and reflective thought. This method must possess and use people in different situations to achieve success. Thinking it has instrumental function - the best means of human adaptation to the environment and the means to improve it.

Reflective thinking and instrumental method, the idea of ​​Dewey (and can agree with him), liberates man and his abilities, allows in a democracy, not only the elite, but to all people the freedom to experiment, to enhance, enrich, develop their social experience, focusing on the overall benefit. Based on my understanding of the experiences, Dewey denied the importance of the objectives and results.

For the individual and society is not achieved important results, and an ever-expanding and becoming more humane progress of experience, "in which all participate and to which everyone contributes."

Pedagogical ideas Dewey inextricably linked to his philosophical and social views. Loyal to democracy, cares for its imperfection, stratification of American society, the hardships of millions of ordinary people, the philosopher saw in education a powerful tool for the development of genuine democracy. "The only fundamental institution, the creating a better society, is the public school system." But then he emphasized the need for its radical transformation.

In developing its educational system Dewey draws much of the heritage of great predecessors - Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel. It will not be an exaggeration to say that the basis of the pedagogical system Dewey lies Rousseauism adapted to the conditions of the industrial age and equipped with concepts pragmatist philosophy. Dewey very prolific writer. From his pen came out about 30 books and about 900 articles, he - the universal philosopher. His works cover the entire spectrum of philosophical and social issues, including ethics, aesthetics, religion, etc.

In Europe, Dewey know little. But American authors argue that many of the ideas of European philosophers, especially postmodern and postpositivist, foreshadowed in his work. And one of his disciples and followers of Dewey, Sidney Hook, even wrote a book "Pragmatism and the tragic sense of life", which carries the idea of ​​ideological kinship with the teachings of Dewey existentialism.

John Dewey remarried at age 88, took two foster children, and ended his life June 1, 1952 in New York.


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