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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

The German philosopher, representative of the philosophy of life. In "The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music" (1872) contrasted the two principles of existence - "Dionysian" and "Apollonian". In the works written in the genre of philosophical and artistic prose, criticized the culture preached immorality ("Beyond Good and Evil," 1886). In the myth of the "superman" cult of personality ("Thus Spake Zarathustra", 1883-1884, "The Will to Power", publ. In 1889-1901 years) combined with Nietzsche's romantic ideal "man of the future."

Father of the philosopher Karl Ludwig Nietzsche was born in the family oylenburgskogo superintendent. After graduating from the theological faculty of one of the best German universities whereas in Halle, KL Nietzsche after a short stay at Altenburg ducal court as a tutor three princesses got a parish in the village near Reken Lyutsena.

According to custom, the young pastor paid visits to neighbors, among whom was his colleague in the village Pobles Eler D., father of 11 children. Among them rekensky pastor immediately allocated 17-year-old Francis. Novel developed rapidly: already 10 October 1843, as the birthday of the groom, the wedding took place.

A year later, October 15, 1844, first child in the family. Called the boy's father in honor of King Friedrich Wilhelm. In July 1846 a daughter, Elizabeth, and two years later - the second son of Joseph.

But marital bliss was short-lived. July 30, 1849 Ludwig Nietzsche died, and six months later the little Joseph died. Frederick later in autobiographical notes described a strange dream, which proved prophetic.

In the spring of 1850 Francis Nietzsche children moved into the old Naumburg. Frederick, who was not yet six years old, went to study in men's public school. Serious, a little reserved and taciturn boy felt uncomfortable at school and lonely. Such exclusion from the collective Friedrich preserved forever.

Going to school, and then in the Dome Gymnasium Friedrich was given easy, though amazing thoroughness and accuracy made him sit up on notebooks and textbooks until midnight. And already at five o'clock in the morning he got up and hurried to school.

But most subjects boy worried poetry and especially music. His idols became classics - Mozart, Haydn, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Beethoven and Bach. The same people who despised music, Nietzsche believed "soulless creatures like animals."

In autumn 1858 the mother of Frederick received an invitation to continue their education in a boarding Pforty son, one of the most prestigious educational institutions in Germany.

Evolved over the years in outlook is reflected in Nietzsche wrote in October 1861 essay on the poet Hölderlin, if not recognized and almost unknown. His work anthemic fusion of man and nature in the spirit of antiquity and brightly reflected the society and personality disorder, attracted young man that Hölderlin able to express sentiments inherent and then Nietzsche.

In April 1862, Nietzsche wrote two philosophical and poetic essay: "Rock and History" and "The Freedom and rock", which contains almost all the basic ideas of his future works. In Pforte had a great library. A young man reading a book with enthusiasm Shakespeare and Rousseau, Machiavelli and Emerson, Pushkin and Lermontov, Petofi and Chamisso, Geibel and Storm. Nietzsche was the favorite poet George Gordon Byron. In 1863 he wrote a paper "On the demonic music" and sketch "On the essence of music." Nietzsche studied the history of literature and aesthetics, biblical texts and ancient tragedy. Breadth of interests and start to disturb him until he decided to turn to the study of philology, in which he hoped to find a science capable of give scope not only the intellect, but also feelings. Especially that philology best suited his passionate love for antiquity, to the writings of Heraclitus, Plato, Sophocles, Aeschylus, a Greek lyric.

In September 1864, Nietzsche graduated in Pforte and after the exams returned to Naumburg. To continue his studies at the University of Bonn he took earlier. At the request of the mother Frederick promised to enroll at the university in the theological department. October 16, after a short trip on the Rhine and the Palatinate, along with Nietzsche Deyssenom came to Bonn.

After nearly barracks orders Pforty completely captured their freestyle and careless student life and revelry mandatory fights foil. But very quickly cool to Nietzsche entertainment and increasingly began to think about switching to philology department, which he did in the fall 1865. He worked in the workshop of one of the best German philologists Friedrich Ritschl and autumn when the mentor was transferred to the University of Leipzig, followed him.

One day he accidentally bought a book of Arthur Schopenhauer "The World as Will and Representation." She was so shocked Nietzsche that he suffered two weeks of insomnia. Only need to attend classes, recalled Nietzsche helped him overcome a deep spiritual crisis, during which he, by his own admission, was close to madness. Schopenhauer's ideas were extremely close while Nietzsche. They led Nietzsche to think about what to dedicate his life execution of the debt - a waste of time and effort. A man doing his duty under the influence of external conditions, and this is no different from an animal, also acting solely on the circumstances. In the summer of 1867, Nietzsche became acquainted with a young student Erwin Rohde, who became his close friend for life. He was a little younger than Nietzsche. Summer holidays they spent together, traveling on foot Bohemian Forest.

Autumn Nietzsche was forced to temporarily suspend training and pass a year of military service. So he was the second battery Field Artillery Regiment, stationed in his native Naumburg.

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