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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881)

Impression of his speech was so great that it seemed all the old ideological differences Russian writers disappeared, as if they were drowned, dissolved to merge into a new enthusiasm "of all mankind" ideas proclaimed by Dostoevsky.

In late 1880, after the end of the novel "The Brothers Karamazov" Dostoevsky resumed production of "Diary of a Writer." But Dostoevsky's death interrupted in the prime of his talent.

January 28 (February 9) in 1881, he was gone. In the writer's funeral was attended by a variety of literary, scientific, social circles. In the "History of Russian Philosophy" Zenkovsky writes: "Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky belongs as much literature as and philosophy. Anything that can not be expressed with higher brightness as that hitherto he inspires philosophical thought. Dostoevsky commentators continue to reconstruct his ideas, and the most variety of these comments does not depend on any ambiguity in Dostoevsky in the expression of his ideas, but rather on the complexity and depth of their course, Dostoevsky is not a philosopher in the ordinary and banal sense of the word, he No purely philosophical writings.

He thinks like an artist, dialectic ideas embodied in his various encounters and meetings "heroes." Statements of these heroes, often with ideological self-worth can not be otryvaemy of their personality. Thus, Raskolnikov, regardless of his ideas, in itself, as a person takes on the attention it can not be separated from his ideas, and ideas can not be separated from what he is experiencing. Anyway, Dostoyevsky Russian belongs, and even more of the world philosophy. Dostoevsky's work is centered around the questions of philosophy of mind, is the theme of anthropology, philosophy, history, ethics, philosophy of religion. In this area, an abundance of ideas and depth of Dostoevsky's amazing, it belongs to those creative minds who suffer from abundance, not from a lack of ideas.

Having received no systematic philosophical education, Dostoevsky read very much, absorbing the ideas of others and responding to them in their thinking. As he tried to go beyond the purely artistic (and it was certainly a great gift and temperament publicist), he still remained a thinker and an artist at the same time everywhere. His "Diary of a Writer", original in its style, constantly filled with purely artistic sketches. " Peculiar combination of real and mystical elements is a hallmark of Dostoevsky. Life seemed to him extraordinarily complex and turmoil, contradictions and insoluble riddles. External circumstances own man no less than the beginning of a mystical, always accompanying every manifestation of human personality.

In the depths of the phenomena of life is the tragic element in Dostoevsky rock, leading the most diverse chance to amazing coincidences, which play a decisive role motive.

Dostoevsky believed that Russia should go ahead, unlike the West peacefully, without radical social and political upheaval. Novel "The Possessed" - a prophetic warning against the monstrous consequences of socialist doctrine. "The Troubles", "unlimited despotism" "conversion of nine-tenths of people in slavery", "removal of a hundred million heads", "complete obedience, complete selflessness", "atheism", "spying."

"Every member of the society looks after the other and one is obliged to denounce", "we let drunkenness, gossip, denunciation." In "Diary of a Writer", analyzing the political and social life of Russia and the West, Dostoevsky introduces the facts of everyday life in a philosophical and historical context. In this clearly affects the main feature of his world - the rejection they revolution, socialism he defines as "widespread looting" as "gloom and horror gotovimy humanity" as "a chaos before something rude, blind and inhuman, that the whole building will collapse under the curses of mankind "(1873).

The main idea of ​​his realism Dostoevsky believed desire to "find a man in man", and this, in his understanding, meant (as he repeatedly explained in a controversy with the vulgar materialists and positivists of his era) to show that the person is not dead mechanical "brad" not "piano key" controls the movement of the opponent's hands (and any outsiders, external forces), but that in itself is laid source of internal self-movement, life, distinguishing between good and evil. And because people, according to Dostoyevsky, in any, even the most unfavorable circumstances, always ultimately is responsible for their actions.

No effect of the environment can not justify ill will any crime inevitably encompasses moral punishment. Paphos rejection of moral intransigence and his life in the individual and in society as a whole is the face of Dostoevsky as a thinker and humanist. Russian idea Dostoevsky - is embodied in the form of patriotic concept of universal morality.

In 1877 Dostoevsky wrote "Russian national idea has finally only worldwide association universal." Russian idea, Dostoevsky suggests the unity of all peoples, without exception.

"We first announced to the world that it is not through the suppression of the individual nationalities strange to us whether we want to achieve their own prosperity, but rather, we see it only in the development of free and independent of all other nations, and in fraternal unity with them, make up one another, instilling self their organic features and giving them and myself to graft branches, communicating with them soul and spirit, learning from them and teaching them, and so on until, when humanity made up of global communication peoples to universal unity as a great and magnificent tree, overshadow him happy land.

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