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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881)

- wrote in 1873 Dostoevsky - that the cause for which we have condemned, those thoughts, those concepts that have owned our spirit - seems to us not only do not require remorse, but even something we cleansing, martyrdom, for which much forgiven us! "It was then make deep internal and ideological fracture in Dostoevsky, who identified all his subsequent spiritual quest.

Dostoevsky was sent to Omsk prison, where he spent four years at hard labor, and since 1854 began with a soldier in Semipalatinsk. Only after the death of Nicholas I, at the request of the defense of Sevastopol hero EI Totleben, it made an officer.

In February 1857 in Kuznetsk writer married MD Isaevoj (nee Constant). Dostoevsky was very attracted to her, but due to illness saps the life of his wife (tuberculosis), this writer's first marriage was unsuccessful.

In 1859, Dostoevsky was allowed to return to European Russia. In the summer, he moved with his wife in Tver, and at the end of the year - in St. Petersburg. Since that time, it is as if his second writer's birth.

Since the early 1860s, one after another out of his works, which have earned fame as one of Dostoevsky geniuses of Russian and world literature - "House of the Dead" (1860-1862), novels "The Insulted and Injured" ( 1861), "Crime and Punishment" (1866), "The Gambler" (1866), "The Idiot" (1867), "The Possessed" (1871-1872), "Teenager" (1875), "The Brothers Karamazov "(1879-1880), the novel" Notes from Underground "(1864), the story" The Meek One "(1876), etc.

Zenkovsky in the "History of Russian Philosophy" writes: "Many times been pointed out that under the" empirical "cloth in all these works, there is a plan that, after Vyacheslav. Ivanov, often referred to as "metaphysical." Indeed, the main "heroes" Dostoevsky in front of us, not only living, concrete person, but in her life, in the inner dialectic of Logos and its development can be traced Dostoevsky dialectic of an idea. Philosophical, ideological Dostoevsky sought its expression in art "- and the power of his artistic talent in that and said that he should figure in the empirical purely artistic flair and customize to fit your artistic ideas (as we are constantly, for example, we find Tolstoy). "

In 1861 in St. Petersburg, together with his older brother Michael (who was also a writer - critic and novelist) Dostoevsky founded the magazine "Time", whose program was to develop a new ideology "pochvennichestva" cease and strife between Westernizers and Slavophiles. In announcing the subscription to the magazine stated: "We are convinced, finally, that we, too, a separate nationality, highly original and that our task - to create themselves form our own, native, taken from our soil." "We anticipate that the Russian idea ... maybe will be a synthesis of all the ideas which Europe develops." Among the staff of the magazine "Time", except Dostoevsky brothers were Al. Grigoriev and Strakhov.

In the summer of 1862 Dostoevsky first went abroad, visited Paris, London (where he visited Herzen), traveled to Germany, Switzerland and northern Italy. Winter 1862-1863, in St. Petersburg, he survived passion young writer AP Suslovoj, in her company (after the magazine "Time" May 24, 1863 was banned by the government) made summer 1863 a second trip abroad. Suslovoj embodied in the image of the heroine of the novel "The Gambler".

Since 1864 Dostoevsky brothers were allowed to publish a new magazine "Epoch", but this turned out to be a critical year for the writer: April 15, 1864 his wife died, and on July 10 - the elder brother Dostoyevsky. After his brother's death Dostoevsky voluntarily assumed its debt, which gravitated over him almost to the end of life. The failure of the "Age" Dostoevsky made in February 1865 cease publication after which he remained for a long time without the means pursued by creditors.

During this period of creativity Dostoevsky manifested a taste for journalistic form. He created his own unique style of journalism (it inherited more than others Rozanov). And "Diary of a Writer" (which he published in the last years of his life) is still a precious material for studying the ideas of Dostoevsky.

In October 1866 the writer was in critical condition due to the bonded contract concluded with them Stellovsky book publisher - the latest in the case of non-writer to him in November 1866 of a new novel, was to be transferred ownership of all his works. Dostoevsky turned to the stenographer, Anna Snitkin, which for months had dictated the novel "The Gambler". This stenographer became the second wife of the writer and his faithful assistant. In work on the "players" Dostoevsky used a new method, which is usually used later: after a long and careful consideration of the plan and the development of individual episodes in their notebooks notebooks he dictated them to his wife, illuminating and supplementing during dictation his creative imagination.

After the wedding, April 14, 1867 the couple moved abroad, where they spent in poverty and wanderings four years. Only 8 July 1871 - after Dostoevsky partially paid debts to creditors - they were able to return to their homeland and settle again in St. Petersburg. Abroad Dostoevsky born daughter - Sonia (who died shortly after birth) and Luba (who later became a writer), and after his return to Russia - sons Alex (also deceased child) and Fedor.

After graduating started abroad novel "Demons" Dostoevsky in 1873 returned to the magazine activity began to edit a newspaper magazine "Citizen", published writer and publicist Prince VP Meshchersky close to court circles.

The magazine began publishing Dostoevsky and "Diary of a Writer" - a series of feature articles, essays, notes and passionate polemic journalistic discourse on "issues of the day." Refusing in April 1874 due to collisions with the publisher from editing "Citizen" Dostoevsky in 1876 and 1877 returned to the edition of "Diary of a Writer" as an independent self-publishing, printing it as a separate monthly issues throughout the year and driving with an extensive correspondence with readers.

The remarkable fact in the life of Dostoevsky was his performance at the so-called "Pushkin celebration" (May 1880), when they sanctified the monument to Pushkin in Moscow.

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