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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881)

The great Russian writer and philosopher. Described unexplored depths and mysteries of the world and the human soul, borderline situations in which a person fails. In man laid a source of self-propulsion, life, distinguishing between good and evil, but because people in all circumstances, he always responsible for their actions. Dostoevsky had a great influence on the development of Russian and world philosophy.

Major works: "" Poor People "(1845)," House of the Dead "(1860)," The Insulted and Injured "(1861)," The Idiot "(1868)," The Possessed "(1872) "Crime and Punishment" (1886), "The Brothers Karamazov" (1880).

Creativity F Dostoyevsky had anticipated in his major philosophical works, socio-psychological and moral conflicts of the XX century, the scale effect on the spiritual state of society seems to be unique. Complexity and inconsistency of legacy Dostoevsky allowed ideologues many different currents of European thought - Nietzsche, Christian socialism, personalism, "the philosophy of life", existentialism, etc. - see the great thinker of his "prophet." Especially in Russia, almost every philosophical and aesthetic direction sought to enlist Dostoevsky, respectively interpreted in their forerunners.

Fyodor Dostoevsky was born on October 30 (November 11) in 1821 in Moscow. His father, the son of a village priest, youths broke with family tradition and forever leave his home. In Moscow, he earned his medical degree in 1812 during Napoleon's invasion began service in military hospitals, physician then decided in the Mariinsky Hospital for the poor. At the end of life MA Dostoevsky money accumulated many years of work, bought at Moscow (about Zaraysk) two small villages. It was there in the future writer formed a deep respect for peasant labor, love for mother nature. About his childhood, Dostoevsky later recalled: "I came from a family of Russian and pious ... We in our family knew the gospel almost from the first year, I was only ten years old when I knew almost all of the major episodes of Russian history."

At the end of "preparatory" school Dostoevsky, along with his elder brother, in 1843, entered the Military Engineering School (in St. Petersburg). During these years, his family tragedy occurred - his father was killed by peasants of his village (mstivshego him for fierce). "Family legend has it - writes about this writer's daughter - that Dostoevsky at the first news about the death of his father became the first attack of epilepsy."

During the stay in the School of Engineering, Dostoevsky became friends with some JH Shidlovskii, "a romantic, come (later) on the path of religious quest" (characterization of his biographer), who had an undeniable influence on Dostoevsky. "Reading with him (ie Shidlovskii) Schiller - Dostoevsky wrote to his brother - I confided to him, and noble, ardent Don Carlos and Marquis Pose name ... I was Schiller family, some magical sound, causing many dreams. "During these years, Dostoevsky became interested in romantic poetry.

In 1843 he graduated from the officer classes Engineering College, earned a spot in the engineering department, but did not remain long in the service, and soon resigned. Dostoevsky lived all the time very poor. Even when he was sent home from a fairly significant amount of money very quickly these he disagreed. Shortly before, in 1844, first appeared in print literary experience Dostoevsky - translation of the novel by Balzac "Eugenie Grandet".

In May 1845 Dostoevsky completed his first novel, "Poor people" that preceded the Roman not extant dramatic experiences - nonrandom fact, given the sharp dramatic follow his works. "Poor people," the critically acclaimed Belinsky, Dostoevsky entered the circle of writers of "natural school" of the 1840s.

Even in those early works of Dostoevsky, "poor people" and "Double", clearly manifested warm sympathy for the disadvantaged, penetration into the "depths of the human soul," sensitivity to the tragic aspects of life characteristic of all his later works.

"I've been in 1846 was devoted to (Belinsky) - Dostoevsky wrote in his diary - full" truth "coming" renewed peace "and during the whole" sanctity of the future communist society. " "I passionately took then all this doctrine" - recalled Dostoevsky.

In 1847, the writer began to attend meetings of the revolutionary society Petrashevsky since the beginning of 1849 became a member of two other socialist circles organized petrashevtsa Speshnev N. and S. Durov. At one of the meetings at Petrashevsky Dostoevsky met comrades had just received from Moscow and distributed illegally letter to Gogol. Together with other members of the circle Speshnyov, becoming the ultimate aim of "a coup in Russia," the young Dostoevsky involved in organizing secret printing press for printing anti-government literature and leaflets.

Arrested April 23, 1849 in the case petrashevtsev, Dostoevsky was imprisoned in the fortress Alexeevsky Ravelin and sentenced to death. December 22, 1849, among other Petrashevists he was placed in Semyonov parade in St. Petersburg, where they read out the death sentence. Only after the first group of convicts blindfolded and cooked it to death, it was announced that the shooting on "mercy" of the king, and subsequently replaced by the hard labor - service in the army privates.

Vividly etched in the memory of Dostoevsky's "ten terrible, terrible immensely minutes waiting for death." Perceived indifference he and his companions "pardon" as before, "without the slightest remorse," listened to a death sentence. "In those last minute ...

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