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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Karl Marx (1818-1883)

German thinker and social activist, founder of Marxism. Marx developed the principles of the materialist conception of history (historical materialism), the theory of surplus value, explored the development of capitalism. Marxist ideas have had a significant impact on social thought and social history at the end of XIX-XX centuries. The main work of Marx - "Capital" (vol. 1, 1867), 2 and 3 volumes prepared for publication Engels (1885 and 1894). Major works: "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts" (1844), "Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Law" (1844), "Holy Family" (1845), "The German Ideology" (1845-1846), both in conjunction with F. Engels, "The Poverty of Philosophy" (1847), "A Critique of the Gotha Program" (1875).

Childhood Marx held in Trier, Rhineland city. In economic and political terms, it was one of the most developed parts of Germany.

The boy's father Heinrich Marx - personality talented, extraordinary - belonged to her son with extraordinary tenderness, care about his spiritual development. The whole atmosphere in the house was favorable to that child's soul reaching for knowledge, goodness and justice.

Karl was baptized at the age of six in the evangelical churches in the city of Trier in Prussia at the request of his father, who refused, so the family of faith. Carl himself later rejected religion, saying it is known that it is "the opium of the people."

When Charles was twelve years old, he enrolled in the local high school. Learning was easy - especially when studying those disciplines where required creative independence, a vivid imagination. Marx successfully mastered Latin and Greek, easily read ancient texts. Apparently, it is the love of ancient languages ​​instilled in him the logical and at the same time lively, full of ironic style that distinguished his work. Marx succeeded in mathematics.

After graduating from high school Marx entered the University of Bonn. He studied there for long - only a year: the search for life's journey led Marx to the Faculty of Law University of Berlin. There is still "vital spirit" of the great Hegel. And it certainly pushed the impressionable, longed comprehensive knowledge of Marx, along with studies in jurisprudence, history and theory of art, foreign languages ​​undertake deeper study of philosophy. He shtudiruet many works, including the works of Hegel and the majority of his students.

Marx became friendly with the Young Hegelians (representatives of a trend followers of the famous philosopher).

Beginning with the 1839 Marx philosophy became the main business of life. And soon intense mental work paid off. In 1841, his dissertation, "The difference between the natural philosophy of Democritus and Epicurus natural philosophy" was awarded a diploma of Doctor of Philosophy. Despite the fact that Marx was still in his work teaching supporter of Hegel, it has become a landmark in its spiritual development: he proclaimed the principle of active relation of philosophy to reality, announced his atheistic views.

By this time is the beginning of Marx's political activity in October 1842, he became one of the staff and editors "Rheinische Zeitung", whose articles determine its orientation. He called for a revolutionary struggle for democratic freedoms, of course, these calls seriously disturbed the Prussian government. Censorship "black out" go out every room. Marx seriously endured such perfidy authorities. "It's disgusting to be under the yoke - even in the name of freedom, to act contrary to pinpricks, instead of fight clubs," - he wrote. In early 1843 the government has achieved its purpose, closed "Rheinische Zeitung".

In June of the same year in the life of Marx and happy event happened: he married Jenny von Westphalen. In Jenny, daughter of Baron Carl fell in love when he was still sixteen. Jenny was an intelligent, noble and a little vain. Of his many fans she chose Marx, who affectionately called "little black savage." Both families were against the marriage. Honeymoon young couple spent in Switzerland. Their first-born was born in Paris.

Moving to Paris was caused largely by the fact that the editor is too "inconvenient" for the government newspaper made an offer to move to the Prussian civil service, Marx took this as a thinly disguised bribery and indignantly rejected it.

Marx's first visit to Paris - the most memorable and significant. It was in the years 1843-1844 was completed its transition to revolutionary communist position, it was then conceived a friendship with Friedrich Engels, the son of a wealthy industrialist.

In February 1844 came the only issue of "German-French Yearbook." Marx first suggested that the communist transformation of society - the only real way to overcome the limitations of the bourgeois revolution and human liberation from social, national and other bonds.

In Paris, Marx takes an active part in the activities of German emigration, cooperates in the newspaper "Forward!". But in January 1845, the French authorities in favor of the Prussian government sent editors and newspaper staff from the country. Marx and his family moved to Brussels.

Here he had to endure a lot of hardship and deprivation - in fact, he was left without a livelihood. The only source of meager income - fees for articles on current policies - was closed: Brussels police in solidarity with the Prussian authorities banned Marx publish anything in the press. Came to the aid of his faithful friend Friedrich Engels. He organized a fundraiser among supporters and adherents of Marx in the Rhineland, sent part of the fee for his book "The Condition of the Working Class in England."

Support associates inspires Marx, he head goes to work.

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