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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

However, familiarity with the Comte gave him the need to study the social behavior of people in a separate section of social science. It is known that he sought to create a special science of the social character and human behavior, which he called ethology.

Interest in the study of social reality forced him to continue working on "System of Logic" and write an additional book, which was included in the final text of work entitled "On the logic in moral sciences." In this part, raised the question of the methods of scientific knowledge society. Since the experimental method, which was crucial in the natural sciences, may have in the social sciences is only limited scope, then the place of experiment Mill puts a particular method of deduction. Its essence is to raise as general postulates in social sciences compilation of social behavior. As a generalization can not because of the special nature of social activities qualify for the exact nature of the law, it must be regarded as an indicator of trends of social movements.

To help this method Mill attracts so-called historical method, or inverse deduction. Of history, according to Mill, you can extract empirical laws. The combination of these laws with the laws of human behavior by the method of deduction can serve the purpose of creating the science of social dynamics, that is, the development of society. Latest book, "System of Logic" JSMill was incomplete in terms of solving the problems in it, because it went far beyond the traditional logic and touched the broad philosophical questions. In particular, it has been considered in detail the issue of the scarcity of scientific methods in the knowledge of reality, in a practical and social activities of man. Here was scheduled to further divergence with the views of Comte's objectives and goals of social development, has received fuller expression in the book JSMill "O. Comte and positivism "(1865).

Certainly, in its outlook Mill attached great importance to the social role of the enlightened, educated strata, illusions about the possibility of correction of manners, including social ills by exposure to one of enlightenment. But these ideas are developed more fully in the book "On Liberty" (1859), were far from elite society stillborn scheme Comte, according to which the aristocracy of the spirit must take the position of the ruling class. In terms of political activity this ideal meant fighting for the creation of equal conditions for universal education. "The idea of ​​the intellectual aristocracy, when everyone else in ignorance, does not correspond to my aspirations," - he wrote his collaborator and future biographer A. Bain. Speaking against the suppression of the freedom of spirit and against the "tyranny of the majority", which, given the threat of bourgeois democracy, he was acutely aware of Mill simultaneously urged to ensure that the company cares about making initial equal opportunities for all its members. In the economic field, he played for the restriction of the right of inheritance, believing that results entrepreneurial parents should not devolve their children.

After an unusually busy decade of the 1840s, conducted almost exclusively at his desk, the 1850s represented a time of reflection biography Mill, assess what has been done to prepare the final, extremely intense and active stage of life. In 1851, the fate of John Mill and Harriet Taylor scrapie last formal ties of marriage (after 1849 her husband died). Wife traveled a lot, spending most of the time in the south of France and in Switzerland. During these years, under the influence of his wife finally formed social and political views Mill. In a lengthy conversation the two men were scheduled and follow the theme works Mill, developed their main ideas. Much of the writing in these years was subjected to further discussion, waiting hours for publikatsii1858 was a watershed year for the Mill.

This year his wife died. The heavy loss of friend and associate, his "alter ego", Mill suffered by the firm determination to carry through all conceived and largely developed jointly.

Already in 1859 he published his essay "On Liberty" with a dedication to Harriet Taylor and indicating in the text, that the basic ideas of this work belong to her. Its content consists in a comprehensive discussion of the boundaries of relations between the state and the individual. Discussing the legal and moral aspects of the problem, Mill concludes that the State has the right to restrict the freedom of the individual only insofar as this freedom is associated with damage to the other.

Extremely detailed discussion of all aspects of the protection of individual rights and the rights of the minorities in different conditions "representative" of bourgeois democracy has made this book influential in the course of many decades. Publication of "Freedom" has become a kind of Mill stage to ensure that again after a long break, closely tie together the political, journalistic and scientific activities.

Leaving work a government official in the East India Company, Mill receives the right to engage in open political struggle, in particular to run for parliament (government officials were deprived of this right). He was a direct participant in all acute political conflicts Victorian England of the 1860s. His political activities in Parliament serve as a pretext for writing articles and brochures and received further study and generalization of more serious political, social and philosophical writings.

Numerous performances Mill in Parliament and outside on the most burning political issues became public, because by that time he already had a reputation recognized master in the field of social sciences and philosophy. Among his many political speeches this time, we note such as the struggle for the rights of the local black population and the British West Indies, the campaign for the prosecution of the governor of the island of Jamaica, brutally killed by the rebels agricultural workers, ad campaign for Hyde Park in London, a place free of political assembly and others.

More long-term nature of the activities carried him against landlordism in Ireland, for providing the landlords' land to the peasants, or mounting them to the peasants on the conditions of long-term lease.

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