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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

Mill believed that art and science as two interacting spheres of spiritual activities must complement each other. Thus for each of these areas are assigned their specific tasks. Science can only partial development and explanation of reality. Practical activities in both private and public in terms of going beyond the science itself, is the domain of art. Science can only provide solutions to practical problems, which uses art, checking compliance with these methods goals.

Every practical human activity begins with setting goals, but the end goal is the foundation of all good achievement, ie a certain satisfactory result. However, what seems to some satisfactory result, for others it may be the greatest evil. Mill justifies the moral side of every practice. Ethical problem thus consists in finding public benefit criteria. Milli ultimately directed search of the ethical ideal, the criterion to distinguish between good and evil in the concrete historical social aspect.

JSMill not escape culture and ideas historian Carlyle with his theory of heroes and the crowd, and traditionalist Coleridge, preachers and ideals of good old England - poets Wordsworth and Tennyson. But at the same time, he fought vigorously with the ideology of conservatism and reaction to negate the right to exist for the concepts of "common good", "common good." As he fought vigorously and religious philosophers who sought to move the issue of "good and evil" in the realm of "other worlds." Without seeking to simplify Mill attitude to religion - and it was quite difficult, as evidenced by one of his last works, "Three Essays on Religion" (1873) - should be emphasized his firm conviction that the struggle for the benefit of men in this world is a worthy goal of the moralist, philosopher and political activist.

This belief was the basis for the Mill of his own scientific and political activities, has earned him a reputation as one of the founders of bourgeois reformism, resolute enemy of conservatism and reaction. Between 1836 and 1848 turned out to be perhaps the most fruitful for the scientific, theoretical activity Mill. During this period, temporarily quieted passions around electoral reform, so excite earlier political activity Mill. On the other hand, is not yet a revolutionary storm broke out in Europe, which forced Mill revert to solving urgent social problems.

Service in the East India Company reserves time for study, and Mill took advantage of these opportunities. He did not neglect his duties to the official, taking an active part in solving various issues related to the management of the British India. It is known that, in drafting the reform of education for India, he strongly objected to the transfer of the whole system of education in English.

Over the years, Mill wrote and published two of his fundamental work "System of Logic" and "Principles of Political Economy." By writing "system logic" he can say, preparing for life. Another childhood years were devoted shtudirovaniem logic courses. In his youth, Mill directly involved in the debate on empirical or a priori nature of general concepts. Development of empirical school in the XVIII century European philosophy preceded the effervescence experimental science. The last method is related changes: "Every phenomenon, changing in a certain way whenever some special way varies another phenomenon is either the cause or a consequence of this phenomenon, or is connected with it kakoyu-libo causation '. Suppose, according to one example of Mill, that we wish to establish the nature of influence of the Moon on the Earth. We are not able to eliminate the moon and then see what happens with the Earth. But we can compare the lunar calendar with the schedule of the tides. As a result, we arrive at the conclusion that the Moon in whole or in part is the cause of these phenomena. The latter method Mill closely associated with obtaining further widespread in a number of ways Sciences regression analysis.

While working on his "logic" Mill met with a book by French philosopher Auguste Comte "The course of positive philosophy" (1842). Then followed a correspondence of these people and their perennial contradictory relationship. Comte was a type of philosopher-prophet, feel called upon to give the world a new religion, open the eyes of humanity at its ultimate goals. The essence of his method was to go from facts to generalize and consider these generalizations are not as objective laws, but only as a milestone for the relative knowledge. When meeting with the views of Comte, Mill was struck by the coincidence in the direction of their independent efforts. Design, synthesis and refinement of the laws of induction as the basis of all the experimental sciences, taken in the 'logic', largely coincided with the ideas of Comte's positive method. In both cases, the conclusion was that all knowledge is confirmed by the experience exhausted. This formulation of the problem of scientific knowledge led to profound contradictions that Mill partially realized (that can be seen from his attempts to examine the science and art as complementary areas of human activity).

Since any experience can not exhaust manifold of the real world, then any generalization of experience, not seeking to go beyond it, in agreement with the positive method of Comte or consistently carried out by induction Mill, can not claim the value of the objective law.

Comte and Mill's views became the basis of positivism - the philosophical currents of the second half of the XIX century. However, one can not see the profound difference in the very basis of the philosophical views of these two men. Mill decisively broke with Comte because of disagreement in the evaluation methods of scientific knowledge of human society. His wide acquaintance with classical political economy, especially the theory of Ricardo, did not allow him to recognize the legality of the expulsion of deduction and abstraction techniques as tools knowledge of the laws of social life.

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