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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

English philosopher and economist. The ideology of liberalism. English founder of positivism, a follower of Auguste Comte. In the "System of Logic" (Vol. 1-2, 1843) has developed an inductive logic that treated as a common methodology of science. In ethics joined principle of egoism (utilitarianism) with altruism. In the essay "Foundations of Political Economy" (Vol. 1-2, 1848), the provisions of classical economics united with those of JB Say and TR Malthus.

John Stuart Mill was born on May 20, 1806 in London to James Mill and Harriet. He was the eldest of nine brothers and sisters. Such large families were not uncommon in England at that time, and although not all children lived to adulthood, the mother of numerous offspring doomed to lifelong heavy domestic and family concerns. This is a great family history gave two personalities, clearly stands out against the background of numerous ancestors and descendants. James Mill and his son John Stuart Mill.

Remarkable for its intellectual qualities father brought no less illustrious son - an example, not often found in history. James Mill was the son of a poor Scottish priest. He soon abandoned the spiritual career and their own labor to make its way into the scientific and cultural elite of England. Among those with whom he maintained a constant scientific and friendships were philosopher Bentham, political economist David Ricardo, historian D. Grotto.

James Mill himself entered the history of economic thought as a "small classic" British bourgeois political economy, which refers to many subsequent scholars. Forced to take care of the large family, James Mill until the end of life has reached relative material well-being, becoming a prominent official of the East India Company. He did not just love their children - he devoted his life to their upbringing. This applies above all to his eldest son, John. The latter became the object of a unique experiment in the history of pedagogy.

He knew no school, no university, no home teachers. His only teacher was his father, and eight years with Jon Stewart himself has started to train their younger brothers and sisters. Evaluating the results of this experiment, we can not ignore that his object was an exceptionally gifted child, in the full sense prodigy. John Mill, later wrote that his first memories relate to age three, when he already knew how to read and write in English, and when his father began teaching him Greek.

While learning English, he just can not remember - at an early age it happened. Beginning with the twelve year old boy went mainly on self - in volume significantly exceeds any university courses at that time. For fourteen years it was brilliant, extremely erudite young man, who had a deep knowledge in areas such as history, mathematics, logic, philosophy and political economy. In addition, he owned the ancient and modern languages ​​(Greek, Latin, French, German), was well read in ancient and modern literature.

Some scattered and unsystematic, biased towards the so-called classical education (ancient languages, etc.) swim that this knowledge has been extracted and internalized self-employment is critical. Being a man of extremely modest, never overestimate their achievements, Mill nevertheless believed that fourteen years outscored their peers in the amount of knowledge a quarter century!

Getting acquainted with the scope and level of its children's classes, you can not say that he exaggerated the distance gap. Doubt causes another. No decade would not allow the mind to ordinary master the knowledge that in a few years has absorbed the mind of genius child. Such intensive training at an early age and had its sad side. Sadly Mill noted in his mature years.

"I never was a kid, never played cricket, it would be better if nature was on his way."

Since childhood and literally until the last days of his life he retained his method combination of mental and physical training long walks and hikes in the picturesque English meadows in the mountains of southern France, during which thought out and discussed it with the best intentions. When Mill was thirteen years old, his father gave him while walking just released the publication of "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation" Ricardo.

Soon the young Mill left for a year in France, where he had the chance to meet many outstanding scientists of the time. In France, he lived in the family of his brother English philosopher Bentham. This family traveled a lot. Range of its interests lay in the sphere of public life and political thought in France. This enabled Mill to meet with supporters of the French philosopher and socialist Saint-Simon, a well-known economist JB Seem.

Changes associated with travel, allowed several Mill distract from the harsh regime of occupation, which became his habit from early childhood. Usually it takes at every 9-10 hours. History was replaced by logic, mathematics, logic, mathematics, languages. Diary, begun in France shows that took place in the first few weeks as strict mode.

Affects the amount of reading, the depth of the criticisms in the course of reading. Already at age fourteen, Mill was able to notice errors acute presentation, logical construction imperfect evidence. But later secular lifestyle family Bentham, moving from one place to break the rhythm of this grueling training that is definitely beneficial effect on future physical and mental health Mill.

Returning to England, Mill settled in London and soon joined the political activities of the country. With the immediacy of youth engaged in propaganda seventeen Mill birth control among women workers. He handed out leaflets composed by himself, which contained recipes conscious limit family size.

In England at that time a frank conversation on the topic of birth control was so defiant violation of decency that Mill even got a few days under arrest.

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