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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831)

The German philosopher, created on the basis of objective idealist theory of dialectics. Hegel's system, which completes the philosophy of modern times, consists of three parts of logic, considering the existence of God before the creation of the world, natural philosophy, having a content of alienation from God, his creation to himself in the human spirit. At the end of the logic is again - this time performed by God in man, but does not differ in content from the first.

Major works "Phenomenology of Spirit" (1807), "The Science of Logic" (1812-1815), "Encyclopedia of Philosophy" (1817, 1830), "Fundamentals of Philosophy of Law" (1821), Lectures on the philosophy of history, aesthetics, philosophy of religion, history of philosophy.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born on August 27, 1770 in Stuttgart, the son of a prominent official of Georg Ludwig and his wife, Mary Magdalene. Hegel's father, first secretary of the Chamber of Accounts, then adviser expedition, according to his biographers, "the austere disposition and amazing accuracy."

V1777-1787 Hegel attended Latin school and high school in Stuttgart. About the multifaceted interests of the future philosopher, we learn from his reading of excerpts from, diaries and scientific studies. Hegel with great interest studied literature, history, mathematics, philosophy, pedagogy, etc. Ancient Greek authors he read in the original. On leaving school Hegel October 27, 1788 he entered the Theological Institute of Tübingen, where they attended a two-year and three-year philosophical theological courses, passing in 1793 the necessary examinations.

However, their spiritual development Hegel obliged mainly self-study and spiritual communion with friends - Hölderlin, who later became an outstanding poet and Shegchingom, future philosopher. Most friends interested in philosophy. They carefully studied Plato, Kant, and, of course, hotly debated. However, combined young people not only scientific, but also political interests. Boys were encouraged by the ideas of the French bourgeois revolution, which they enthusiastically welcomed, their prophet was at the time, Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Friends were a political club, where read and reread the French newspapers and vividly discussed the events of the French Revolution. Hegel's student years coincided with major political events in France, the storming of the Bastille, the overthrow of the monarchy, the execution of Louis XV and the coming to power of the Jacobins. These events were met enthusiastically by Hegel.

With Schelling and Hegel, Hölderlin participated in a symbolic planting of "tree of liberty" in 1791. About the French Revolution, Hegel wrote later, "it was a gorgeous sunrise. All thinking beings celebrating this era. While reigning sublime, touching feeling, the world was gripped by enthusiasm, as if only now it's a real reconciliation with the divine world. "

Hegel's enthusiasm about the French Revolution, particularly clearly manifested in his youth under "Folk religion and Christianity", on which work began in Tuebingen and was interrupted in Bern. At the end of theological institute Hegel refuses career pastor and sent to Bern, where he served as a tutor in a patriarchal family of Karl Ludwig Steiger. Here Hegel uses all his spare time reading philosophical literature (Fichte, Schelling), for the study of political and economic life in Switzerland and continues to follow closely the developments in France.

Fall of the Jacobin dictatorship, a counterrevolutionary coup of 9 Thermidor, education Government Directory, the rise of Napoleon - these are the main milestones of the political history of France, which had a strong impact on the German ideology and, in particular, the spiritual development of Hegel.

In the years 1793-1796 Hegel serves as an advocate of the republican form of government, a negative attitude to the then dominant in Germany feudal-absolutist order and the Catholic Christian religion worships ancient democracy and preaches the need for active human intervention in public life with a view to change. Then he was an opponent of the policy of reconciliation with reality. This kind of attitude is reflected in the two manuscripts "Life of Jesus" (1795) and "Positivity of the Christian religion" (1795-1796).

In 1797 Hegel returns home and thanks to Hölderlin, receives a post tutor in the family of a merchant Gogel in Frankfurt am Main. He continues to deal with the political, historical and philosophical issues, wrote a pamphlet "On the latest internal relations Württemberg, especially about the device magistrate" (1798), which raises the question of the necessity of constitutional reforms in Wuerttemberg.

In 1799 he finished a treatise, "The Spirit of Christianity and its fate." This period is also fascination Hegel English political economy. He wrote commentaries on the works of Stuart "Study the principles of political economy." Unfortunately, this comment is lost. As you know, the English economists had a strong influence on the philosopher, as evidenced by the "Philosophy of Right", where Hegel returns to the classics of English political economy.

In Frankfurt Hegel gradually breaks up with dreams of the republic in the spirit of the ancient polis. Failure of Hegel republican ideals associated with the fact that the revolutionary upsurge in France was reversed. This is also caused by the fact that the philosopher is now moving away from preaching the principle of active intervention in public life, which he put forward earlier. Hegel is more inclined to the idea of ​​reconciliation with the inescapable laws of historical destiny. Previously, he was sharply criticized for preaching Christianity passivity. Now he appreciates the Christian religion.

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