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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)

The representative of the German classical philosophy. In the "Addresses to the German Nation" (1808), urged the German people to the revival and unification. The central concept of "teaching science" Fichte (Cycle Works "Wissenschaftslehre") - activities impersonal universal "identity", "I", believes itself and its opposite - the world of objects' non-self. "

Johann Gottlieb Fichte was born May 19, 1762 in the village of Rammenau (Oberlausitz District) into a peasant family. Besides agriculture, his father and grandfather were engaged in reindeer artisanal tapes. Fichte was the first-born in a family where there were still seven children. Mother of the future philosopher was a woman of power and determined. Her features and researchers see Fichte authoritarianism, intolerance of other opinions and self-righteousness.

Johann Gottlieb very soon showed remarkable ability to assimilate and memory, but the family was too poor Fichte in order to give his son an education Kills fortune. In Rammenau was a wonderful pastor, whose sermons attracted not only by the villagers, but also numerous neighbors from surrounding places. Small Fichte loved these sermons, and the pastor often worked with him.

Once a rich neighboring landowner, Baron von Miltits, came to Rammenau relatives wanting to listen to the famous pastor, but was late and only caught the very end of the sermon. He was advised to call "Gusyatnikov Fichte," which repeats the entire sermon by heart. What was surprising background Miltitsa when eight Fichte repeated almost verbatim a sermon, and that not only meaningful, but also with great enthusiasm. Delighted Baron decided to give the boy education, gave it to the school and to bear the costs of training. Fichte graduated from public school in Meissen and in 1774 was admitted to the closed aristocratic institution - Pfortu. In 1780 he entered the Theological Faculty of the University of Jena.

However, poverty made itself felt. Family background Miltitsa, who died shortly after admission Fichte Pfortu, helped him up to the first years of study at the university. However, this assistance was insufficient to continue their studies, and Fichte had to give private lessons that he took away a lot of time and prevented in time to take exams. He moved from Jena to Leipzig, but then, having no means to graduate, leave school and from 1784 he has been working as a private tutor in various families of Saxony.

In September 1788 Fichte place gets a tutor in Zurich, where he enthusiastically immersed in the study of languages ​​translates all Sallust, some one Horace, of Rousseau and Montesquieu, wrote an article about the "Messiah" of Klopstock. He met his future wife, Johanna Rahn, niece of Klopstock, engagement occurs. However, the wedding of young people several years delayed: the circumstances it is not very favorable. Finally, in October 1793 Fichte to marry his fiancee, which gets to the end spiritually close and loyal friend. Wife opens a small fortune now for him to do what he likes - philosophy - without the constant need to take care of their daily bread.

In 1790 Fichte discovered Kant. "I dedicate this philosophy at least a few years of my life - Johann wrote enthusiastic bride - and all that I now for a few years I will write, will only be about her. It is incredibly difficult, and it certainly needs to be done more easily. " Fichte now wants nothing other than to possibly more popular outline principles Kantian philosophy and using rhetoric to achieve their effects on the human heart.

In June and August 1791 Fichte makes a pilgrimage to Kant in Königsberg. The first visit of a young man fell short of expectations. Maitre, who continuously received visitors from Germany and other countries, could not be given to an unknown teacher a lot of time, and most lectures on Kant, Fichte sleepy. But Fichte continued to study his works, written in Koenigsberg left for another month, his "Critique of all revelation", which develops the ideas of Kant's relation to theology, and sent it to the great philosopher. Their second date was then quite different "Only now do I see in him traits worthy of the great spirit that infused his works" - Fichte wrote in his diary. Kant not only approved the manuscript, but also helped the young author to find a publisher for her, and gave him a better teacher's place in the count Krokowa.

Fichte became widely known in philosophical circles. Partly to its popularity Fichte obliged fluke: book appeared without the author's name, and the readers of her authorship attributed to Kant himself. The latter had to eliminate misunderstanding and name the young budding philosopher last thereby immediately hit the number of outstanding scientists and at the end of 1793 was invited to occupy the chair of philosophy in Jena. Before that, for two years (1792-1793), Fichte much fruitful work and on another subject that has long occupied him. This theme - the French Revolution, which at that time was a subject of general interest and discussion in Germany, as indeed in the whole of Europe. Initial excitement caused by the events of 1789, subsequently, with the rise of terror changed rejection and condemnation.

In 1792 Fichte writes the article "Claim of European monarchs of freedom of thought, they are still oppressed," and after it - a great essay, whose title speaks for itself - "To rectify the public judgments about the French Revolution. Part One - to discuss its legitimacy "(1793) Both work out anonymously, without the author's signature Fichte protects ideas of the French Revolution, especially the right to freedom of thought as one of the inalienable rights of man, which is an essential condition of the spiritual development of the individual, and outlines a number of problems of philosophy of law and the state, which subsequently became one of the central subjects of the study of the philosopher.

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