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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » David Hume (1711-1776)

Since I was already in his fifties, I was hoping to keep this philosophical freedom until the end of life. "

Hume is firmly established in Edinburgh, turning your home into a kind of philosophical and literary salon. If earlier in his career, he emphasized the role of freedom in every way as the supreme and absolute value, it is now published their essays on history, morality, art (Hume - one of the pioneers of the genre free essay in English literature) are increasingly thought more slips meaning of the Act even in comparison with freedom and that the best way to go on the restriction of freedom than a deviation from the established order.

Thus, the works of Hume is a platform for national reconciliation liberals and monarchists, the Whigs and Tories. Hume books translated into German, French and other European languages, he was best known outside of England by British author of the time. However, with the accession to the English throne in 1760 George III has changed.

In 1762, completed the 70-year reign of the Whigs, and Hume with its objective and sometimes skeptical position was perceived as a "prophet of the counterrevolution." V1763, the war ended with France because England colonies, and Hume was invited for the post of Secretary of the British Embassy in Versailles court. For two and a half years prior to 1766, he was in the diplomatic service in the French capital, and in recent months Acting British charge d'affaires.

In Paris, Hume was handsomely rewarded for his former literary failure - he was surrounded by attention and even admiration, and philosopher even thought about that later to stay here forever, which dissuaded him from Adam Smith. Originated peculiar socio-psychological paradox and the French Enlightenment materialists and their ideological opposites of courtly-aristocratic clique warmly welcomed the work of Hume on British history. The royal court was favorable to Hume because he in his writings partially rehabilitated Stuarts, and this is not surprising favor later, during the French Restoration, it will manifest again.

Louis Bonald warmly recommended to read the French historical works of Hume, and in 1819 under Louis XVIII was published in Paris a new translation of "The History of England." Voltaire, Helvetius, Holbach perceived skepticism of Hume as a revolutionary doctrine as deism (the doctrine of God created the world and then not to intervene in his case) or even atheism. Holbach Hume called the greatest philosopher of all ages and the best friend of mankind. About his love for Hume and his reverence wrote Diderot and de Brosse. Helvetius and Voltaire praised Hume ascribing advance more merit than they did it was they were hoping against skepticism and agnosticism in matters of religion, he goes to atheism, and encouraged him to this radical step.

The most friendly relations established between Hume and Rousseau, and Hume, returning to England, invited him to visit. However, on arriving in London and then to the estate of Hume (1766) Rousseau could not be reconciled with prim British manners, became suspect in Yuma arrogance, contempt for his writings, and then (and it was already painful suspiciousness) in spying on him for the sake of Holbach and others - again, imaginary - his enemies in an attempt to kidnap and assign it to the manuscript, and even the desire to keep it against the will of a prisoner in England.

Hume, who was impressed by free-Rousseau, now frightened sharpen its negation of civilization, science, and even art, his willingness to replace the monarchy (so convenient in terms of Hume, to achieve a compromise mezhsoslovnogo) republic in the spirit of the later Jacobin. Hume did not become a materialist. In a letter to E. Millyar, his publisher, philosopher admitted that he prefers to make peace with churchmen than after Helvetius engage in dangerous skirmish with them. In April 1759 Hume Adam Smith wrote that book Helvetia "On the mind" is worth reading, but "not for its philosophy." Ironic known statements about Hume deism of Voltaire and even more critical of his remarks about "dogmatism" "System of Nature" Holbach.

As for friendly relations with Hume plebeian ideologue Rousseau, the story of their relationship is extremely characteristic of old friends turned into enemies. V1766 year, on his return to the British Isles, Hume received the post of Assistant Secretary of State. Bright pages friendship with French philosophers of Hume quickly faded in his memory, but he soon revived their official ties with British diplomats that helped him achieve such a high position.

V1769 year Hume resigned and returned to his hometown. Now he is finally able to realize his long-cherished dream - to bring together a group of talented philosophers, writers and art connoisseurs, lovers of the natural sciences. Hume became secretary created in Edinburgh Philosophical Society and engaged in educational activities. Of science and the arts, who rallied around Yuma in these years were the glory of Scotland. In this circle were moral philosophy professor Adam Ferguson, the economist Adam Smith, anatomist Alexander Monro, surgeon William Cullen, the chemist Joseph Black, a professor of rhetoric and literature, Blair Hughes and some other well-known in those days, including the continent of culture.

Edinburgh cultural flowering in the second half of the XVIII century was largely bound activity of this group of prominent scientists that served as the basis for creation in 1783 by Adam Smith and historian William Royal Society in Scotland.

In the early 70-ies of the XVIII century Hume repeatedly returned to work on his last major work "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion", the first draft of which dates back to 1751. Precursor of these "dialogues" was apparently released in light Hume anonymously in 1745 booklet on religion.

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