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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » David Hume (1711-1776)

During his lifetime he wrote 49 essays that were in various combinations during the life of the author survived nine editions. Among them were also essays on economic issues and the actual philosophical essays, including "suicidal" and "On the immortality of the soul", and partly moral and psychological experiments "Epicure", "Stoic", " Platonist, "" skeptic. "

In the mid-1740s Hume to improve their financial situation, first had to play the role of a companion at insanely Marquise Anendale and then become secretary general of Saint-Clair, who went on a military expedition against the French in Canada. So Hume became a part of the military missions in Vienna and Turin.

While in Italy, Hume remade first book, "A Treatise of Human Nature" in "Research on human cognition." This abbreviated and simplified summary of the theory of knowledge Hume is perhaps the most popular of his work among those who study the history of philosophy. In 1748, this work was published in England, but it did not attract the attention of the public. Did not arouse much interest readers and abbreviated summary of the third book of the "Treatise ...", which is entitled "Study on the principles of morality," was published in 1751.

Unrecognized philosopher returned home to Scotland. "It has been seven months since I started my own hearth and organized family consisting of its head, that is me, and two members of his subordinates - maids and cats. I was joined by my sister, and now we live together. As a moderate, I can enjoy the cleanliness, heat and light, wealth and pleasures. What do you want more? Independence? I hold her in the highest degree. Glory? But it is quite undesirable. Good reception? It will come with time. Wife? It is not necessary vital need. Books? Here they are really needed, but I have more of them than how much I can read. "

In his autobiography, Hume says: "In 1752, the Law Society has chosen me as his librarian, said the post did not bring me almost no income, but made it possible to use the extensive library. At this time I decided to write a "History of England", but not feeling brave enough to depict the historical period of seventeen centuries, began with the accession of the house of Stuart, for it seemed to me that it is with the spirit of this era parties most distorted coverage historical facts. I admit, I was pretty sure the success of this essay. It seemed to me that I am the only historian who despised both power benefits, authority and voice popular prejudices, and I was expecting applause, relevant to my efforts. But what a terrible disappointment! I was greeted with a cry of displeasure, resentment, almost hatred: English, Scottish and Irish Whigs and Tories, churchmen and sectarians, freethinkers and bigots, patriots and courtiers - all combined in a fit of rage against a man who dared to generously mourn the fate of Charles I and Earl of Strafford, and that the worst of all, after the first outbreak of rabies book was, seemed to have forgotten. "

Hume began publishing the "History of England" with volumes devoted to the history of the house of Stuart in the XVII century, and in full compliance with its ethics could not be entirely on one side. Sympathizing with the Parliament, and he did not approve of the massacre in the 1640s over the Lord Strafford and Charles I. Hume considers history as a kind of applied psychology, explaining events interweaving of individual characters, will and feelings, and the stability of the course of events gives, in his opinion, a habit. Most emergence of the state - the result of the consolidation of the institution of military leaders that people "get used" to obey.

Hume's psychological approach was unusual for English historiography of the XVIII century, limited party-biased assessment of the facts. His approach better fit into the Scottish historiographical tradition in which he anticipated the later romantic and psychological historicism Walter Scott and other historians and writers. (Incidentally, Hume always emphasized their affiliation to the Scottish nation and never wanted to get rid of a noticeable Scottish accent). As already mentioned, the first volume of the "History of England" were met by the British public and the ruled in the 1750s Whig reserved. A role in this was played as skepticism of Hume on religion.

This skepticism, although directed only against pre-Christian religions, is clearly visible in Hume published in 1757, "Natural History of Religion." There he comes from the fact that "the mother of piety - ignorance," and ends with the fact that "a people without religion, if such exists, is only slightly higher than the animals." Religious "truth" can never be known, they can only believe, but they need to emerge from the psychological needs of the senses. In England, which by that time had become largely Protestant country, objective approach to the role of Yuma Catholic events in XVII century aroused suspicions.

Hume names listed all the major figures of the Catholic and royalist parties without losing their merits, as well as transgressions. This is contrary to what was decided in the Whig historiography depicting opponents as a continuous stagnant and mostly nameless mass. Total Hume was written six volumes, two of them were republished. The second volume of the "History of England" (1756) met a favorable reception, and when they came to light following its volume edition found quite a lot of readers, including those on the continent. Circulation of all books sold in full, the essay was reprinted in France.

Hume wrote "I did not only secure, but also a rich man. I returned home to Scotland, with the firm intention not to leave it more enjoyable and knowledge that has never sought the help of the powerful and did not even look their friendship.

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