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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Ofra Julien De La Mettrie (1709-1751)

In short, throughout Lamettrie behaved as if he belonged to the king as a comrade. "

Despite the fact that medical practice and duties of the royal philosopher reader rob a lot of time out of his pen out new works, philosophical works "Man-plant", "Anti-Seneca", "Essay on the freedom of expression of opinions" "The system of Epicurus," "Animals - more than a car", "Man - more than a machine"; medical works: "Treatise on Asthma," "Memoirs of dysentery"; satire - significantly expanded edition of "Works of Penelope" and "Little man with a long tail." All this was written over three years (1748-1751).

Lamettrie believes that man by nature is a treacherous, cunning, insidious and dangerous animal that people are born evil. Virtue Lamettrie considers only the result of education that a person receives in the course of life in society.

"... Body - nothing, but the soul - all, saves, death, whatever it may cost you" - that characterizes Lamettrie prevailed in his time approach to morality. Religious outlook postulated lowland sinfulness bodily pleasures insignificance of Earthly Delights, contempt for them, calling suppress all outgoing impulses from the body. This brings Christian morality with morality Stoics. Therefore Humanist ethics critic of Christianity often acts as a critique of the ethics of Stoicism. Montaigne did so, and so does La Mettrie, who wrote "Anti-Seneca."

In "Anti-Seneca" Lamettrie encourages obey our feelings and strive to make them enjoyable. Under the sensations that are pleasing to us Lamettrie meant primarily feelings of lust. He believed that it is necessary to think more about the body than the soul, and deliver more pleasures body. For happiness, believed Lamettrie not require intelligence, knowledge. Person experiencing voluptuous sensations, he called the "beastly happy." Image of the person who drew Lamettrie and which he sought to follow, created him notoriety.

Our life, body, given to us by nature, pleasure, which it calls, it is necessary to appreciate. They are beautiful because they are natural. Lamettrie fully associates itself with the thought of Montaigne. Pleasant feeling, he says, when it is short, it is fun when it is long - pleasure when it constantly - happiness. Repeating that there is nothing shameful or vicious in natural Departures body Lamettrie paints sensual pleasures such detail that had ruffle bigot. At the peak of these gentlemen Lamettrie extols sensual pleasures, especially of the "Joy of Venus", singing their naturalistic and colorful: this dedicated his book "sensuality" and "Art to enjoy." The first says: "We owe a boon being only one pleasure", it "snaps me back to life." Enjoyment rooted in the order of nature and in the pursuit of it unites all beings. Avoids pleasure goes against nature, violating its laws. Happiness can only give people pleasure. "Consequently, the sage should seek pleasure." With the ability to enjoy, everyone has everything they need to be happy. "If he is unhappy, this is, I think, by his own fault or due to the fact that he is abusing the gifts of nature."

To be happy, he says, it is only necessary to know their tastes, passions, temperament and be able to make good use of them. "To do always as much as like, to satisfy all his desires, that is, all the vagaries of the imagination, if not happiness, - let me then say what kind of happiness ..."

Boissier believes that happiness Lamettrie reduced to the satisfaction of sensuality, bodily pleasures. But admiring the sensual pleasures, Lamettrie gives no less appreciation of pleasure and even happiness, which is tested in a time when busy finding the truth. That mental activity, research, artistic creativity that distinguish man from the animals. Lose books for someone who tasted them delivered joy lose paper and ink for the taste delight literary creativity - a great misfortune. Philosopher emphasizes "how the conquest of the mind are superior to any other." According to Diderot, "Anti-Seneca" - a book that justifies any crime. Finding only one immorality in the book La Mettrie, Diderot sees only immorality in his life. Great educator shows Lamettrie ignoramus. Similarly expressed about him Holbach d'A Lumber and other educators who claimed that Lamettrie gives weapons to their enemies. They believed that Lamettrie joined libertenov views, that is, those who not only rejected the religious morals, but called wildly indulge in sensual pleasures. According Mauzy, the basic postulate of "cynical morality Lamettrie" states: "man-machine can only seek happiness in the pleasures of the body." "Lamettrie develops this postulate ... egotistskom delirium. He rejects any contrary rule, paying no attention to the society or the laws. "

Lamettrie not indulge in any pleasures calling body and all costs avoid bodily suffering. No, he says, is nothing more beautiful fortitude, giving strength to endure physical suffering of a person for the sake of others. Someone who can do it, even more honor than someone who can rise above the power of death, his contempt for her. "Anti-Seneca" contains real hymn to the courage of the spirit, it is far above the courage of the body, how the scientific struggle above war. Those who combines the courage and spirit of knowledge (for Lamettrie moral grandeur is inseparable from education), not only the staunchly adversity, but also support us by his example: "Epicurus, Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, and the shadow of Mont - here are my doctors in misfortune: their courage - a drug in trouble. " With this in mind Lamettrie connects the call to despise persecution befalls those who courageously opposed the prevailing prejudices.

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