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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Ofra Julien De La Mettrie (1709-1751)

Soul - is "devoid of content term that is not covered and no idea which sanity can be used only for that part of the vestments of our body which thinks." As for the essence of thinking, the idea, according to La Mettrie, represents only "the ability to feel" and "thinking soul is nothing like the feeling of the soul fixed on the contemplation of ideas and arguments."

However, for all its naturalism and mechanistic Lamettrie attaches importance to education.

"If an organization man - he writes - is the first of its advantage and the source of all the others, education is the second of its advantage. Without education well organized mind loses all its value, as well as excellent nature created man in a secular society would be no different from a rough guy. " But the car is distinguished from the person that it is not necessary to form. And if the man was a machine, the entity could not change his nature, and it would have remained "formed by machine."

Lamettrie opposed the Cartesian position that animals are devoid of any sensitivity, assuming that all living beings have the same capacity to feel, and it is typical not only for humans, but for all animals. This view he develops in the book "The Man-Machine." Although the title of the work refers to a mechanistic approach to the problem of human inherently Lamettrie views were far from understanding the man only as a special kind of mechanism. People, according to La Mettrie, differs significantly from mechanical devices as a special kind of machine it, the ability to feel, think, distinguish good from evil.

"The human body - is winding machine itself, a living embodiment of continuous movement." Man - this clockwork that the plant does not mechanically, but by entering the blood nutritious juice produced from food. This nutritious juice Lamettrie calls "Hylas." Although Lamettrie compares the human body clock, he believes that the human body continues to operate after the crash, that is as a result of the disease. Thus, the "man-machine" for Lamettrie - a "human-animal", being one material being, a creature of the organic world.

Lamettrie first philosopher suggested the possibility of the origin of man from animals. He also believed that the appearance of a person must be explained not only by biological factors, required for the formation of human language, articulate speech. For him, it was also important education rights.

"Without education, even well organized mind loses all its value." Public life - a necessary condition for the formation of man. The process of cognition Lamettrie presented as follows: from the sensory perception of things we turn to the pilot studies, and then - to the rational generalization of facts which are subject to empirical testing. Bonus Lamettrie attached great importance, but it believed that the experimental data should be subjected to philosophical generalization.

Lamettrie said that man is a "brain screen" that displays external objects, but the objects mirroring occurs only in the eye lens, the knowledge of reality is achieved in the human mind. Anonymity does not save Publishing website from exposure and Lamettrie understood, of course, the size of the danger which he subjected himself. Even a few months before the publication of "man-machine", he sought refuge from persecution threatening it refers to Maupertuis, who, like La Mettrie, was a native of Saint-Malo.

Maupertuis was then president of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and enjoyed great favor Frederick II, to advertise his wing writers, scientists, philosophers Maupertuis was not only ideologically close to La Mettrie, he was his friend. Meanwhile, the city began to spread the rumor that the author - Lamettrie. If this rumor comes to authorities warn philosopher, he is in for it: powerful interests require his head. Under cover of night, he goes on foot from Leiden, hiding in the huts of shepherds and finally leaves the country, where he became a victim of the same intolerance, from which escaped from France.

For Lamettrie patronage "north of Solomon" - the King of Prussia was salvation. At a time when it was clear that he can not escape punishment, he was beyond the reach of fanatics.

February 8, 1848 Berlin newspaper announces the arrival of "the famous Dr. de La Mettrie." Frederick immediately provides Lamettrie court physician positions and his personal reader, and soon appointed him a member of the Academy of Sciences. Although led by a prominent member of the Academy of advanced thought of the time, it was dominated by extremely reactionary views. But Lamettrie meets in Berlin and people ideologically close - Maupertuis d'Arzhansa, Algarotti, and since 1750, and Voltaire. King takes to exile sympathy and interest. He spent whole days in society Lamettrie who becomes his favorite companion.

Lamettrie acquires such freedom, about what he had previously never dreamed. He meets with people that can openly share their thoughts.

La Mettrie, escaped almost certain death thanks to Frederick, who, naturally, felt obliged, hitting to the court, immediately felt the humiliation of royal favor. In "Penelope Work," published a year after his arrival in Berlin, he wrote: "The honor of being the approximate great king does not eliminate the sad thoughts that you are beside the host, whatever kind it may be ... At the court requires more and helpfulness flattery than philosophy, but I'm still diligently engaged only last ... and nothing, of course, in the age of thirty-nine start learning cringing. " This bitter feeling found expression in bravado, in violation of court etiquette. Eyewitness reports, in the presence of the king, "he sat down, lounging on the couch. When it got hot, he took off the collar unbuttoned jacket and threw the wig on the floor.

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