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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Francois Marie Voltaire (1694-1778)

Bearing in mind this weapon satirical expose evil, Voltaire wrote in a letter: "What I do in my solitude? Burst out laughing. And what I do? 'll Laugh until his death. "

Voltaire was still full of optimistic confidence that the struggle carried out by him and his associates from educational camps can not be barren, and in the near future must necessarily lead to a major upheaval in public relations and a decisive improvement of the human condition. "All that I see - prophetically stated in a letter Voltaire Shovlenom from April 2, 1761 - sowing the seeds of revolution that would inevitably come ... The French have always lag, but in the end they all reach the same goal; light gradually spread so that the explosion will occur at the first opportunity, and then there will be a big fuss. Young people truly happy they see wonderful things. "

Ferney Voltaire activities received public recognition. One expression of this was started in 1770 to raise funds for a statue of Voltaire. It was attended by all the leaders of the Enlightenment movement and the mass of people sympathetic to him, including a number of European monarchs, led by Catherine II and Frederick II. Established in 1772 by the famous sculptor Pigalle statue was crowned with a laurel wreath on the famous actress Clairon apartment in Paris.

In early 1778, Voltaire felt that he could afford at least for some time to return to Paris, without asking permission from the authorities, and 10 February "Ferney patriarch" has arrived in the French capital, which was nearly thirty years.

The enthusiastic reception given to Voltaire Parisians in whose eyes he was not only the greatest representative of modern French culture, but also the glorious fighter for justice and humanity, forced the authorities to abandon his new plan of expulsion from the capital. Voltaire takes his many friends and admirers, attends meetings of the Academy and theatrical performances, meeting with all sides deeply touched him tokens of recognition and respect.

In these circumstances, Voltaire continues intense creative activity, working feverishly and full of new ideas. It completes a new tragedy "Irina", which immediately put to the Paris scene, drafting a new vocabulary of modern French language. However, it gave way and rapidly progressive incurable disease that could have been due to the exceptional strength of the latter months of his life.

May 30, 1753 Voltaire died. Parisian church authorities did not give permission for the burial of his body, and the Paris police banned the print notification of his death and put his plays. Nephew of Voltaire Abbe Mignot (brother of Madame Denis), wasted no time in secretly managed to take the body of the deceased in the province of Champagne, and buried in the cemetery of the abbey Cellera before there was obtained prohibiting local ecclesiastical authorities to commit this ritual.

During the revolution, along with Rousseau, Voltaire was recognized as one of its "fathers" and his ashes by the decision of the Constituent Assembly was July 10, 1791 brought to Paris and placed in the Pantheon then created great people of France.

Voltaire was aware that deism - a religion of enlightened public. As for the ignorant and downtrodden masses, it can be held in check only moral using traditional religion with its afterlife punishments and retribution. It was on this occasion Voltaire once said: even if God did not exist, it should have been invented Yet regard deism, Voltaire was not original here. He soon gave moral and aesthetic design of this idea. And what Voltaire was really original, so it is in his philosophy of history.

Here Voltaire was largely innovator. Together with another educator, Montesquieu, he largely anticipated this great thinker of the XIX century, as Hegel. Anyway, it was Voltaire coined the term "zeitgeist", which then will make extensive use of Hegel.

In the story, according to Voltaire, are not mystical "spirits". It is also no divine providence. God created nature, says Voltaire, and people make history themselves. Yet they do not the story as he wants. Rather, they can do so, as you'd like, but if they do something that does not meet the "spirit of the times", it is a kind of reaction.

Thus, the mythical Furies - Servants of Truth - avenged all that the offense against the law. Rome robbed barbarians - barbarians plundered Rome. History, according to Voltaire, is the last Day of Judgment, and sooner or later it puts everything into place. History does not give an unambiguous assessment judge clearly - then judge sided. Voltaire calls it "Pyrrhonism" stories, named the ancient skeptic Pyrrho, who advised to refrain from certain judgments about things. Indeed, feelings are deceiving us, believed Pyrrho, and judgments about the world are different in different people.

But Voltaire has in mind in this case is different, namely objective confusion of history itself. It is that Hegel later call "stealth" stories of people think that they are pursuing their own life goals, and in fact they realize the historical necessity. Targets individuals, even outstanding, do not coincide with what is obtained as a historic result. Therefore, Voltaire was not a supporter of such a historiography that seeks to penetrate the secrets boudoirs and classrooms.

Ferney sage had such a strong influence on his contemporaries, that the 18th century and is now sometimes called the century of Voltaire. Craze Voltaire, it works really was one of the characteristics of the era. In Russia, where Catherine II decided to create even in Tsarskoye Selo copy Ferneya fashion for the great educator, received the name "Voltairianism" put common sense above all, who allows himself to ridicule everything and everyone.

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