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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Francois Marie Voltaire (1694-1778)

Initially, he was fascinated by his life in Prussia. Philosopher King was happy to attention the fact that he could safely express their wildest judgment in a circle known for their free-thinking individuals (among them was a militant materialist La Mettrie). But Voltaire's duties were limited to editing literary works written by the King of Prussia in French. Voltaire same independence of judgment proved to be unacceptable for Frederick II.

In early 1753 Voltaire relinquished his duties at the royal court and left the German (pre-after sitting at the behest of the Prussian monarch more months under house arrest in Frankfurt). After that Voltaire for life no longer attend hunting monarchs, even the most "enlightened", come to them and live in the service of the court (he declined, in particular, an invitation of the Austrian Empress Maria Theresa).

At the end of 1754 after a course of treatment on the waters of the French city of Plombières Voltaire accompanied his widowed niece Marie Louise Denis (daughter of his sister, who has since almost constantly with him as housekeeper and inherited his fortune) arrives in Switzerland. Here he takes on the estate near Geneva, pointedly calling her "Joy", and the house in Lausanne. But in Republican Switzerland Voltaire found desirable security of existence. Without abandoning their farms and houses in Switzerland, Voltaire December 24, 1758 moved to this country bordering the French District of Gex, bought there two estates - Tournai and Fernet, the latter became his main residence.

So he explained the benefits of a new residence "with your left hand, I rely on the Jura mountains, right - the Alps, Lake Geneva, is located directly in front of my field, I have the beautiful castle on the French border, Delis refuge in the territory of Geneva and a nice home in Lausanne. Perekochevyvaya from one hole to another, I can not escape from the kings and armies. "

Here Voltaire took guests from all over Europe. Becoming extremely wealthy man, he finally could afford a luxurious lifestyle. Voltaire state replenished from different sources Houses of dignitaries legacy of his father, the fees for the publication and republication of works, proceeds from the sale he owned posts and from financial speculation. In 1776, annual revenue was Voltaire two thousand livres, which makes Ferney the patriarch of one of the richest people in France.

Even after he passed for 65 years, he continued to send hundreds of emails and releasing numerous literary and philosophical works. Most eminent correspondent of Voltaire began shortly after his accession to the throne of the Russian Empress Catherine II, which declared itself Encyclopaedists pupil. Being away from households, Voltaire and more effective than it has ever been, working on European monarchs, referring to them with advice and teachings about their responsibilities to the people.

Among them - "Candide, or Optimism", "Treatise on Toleration," "Philosophical Dictionary," "simple-minded", "Questions about the" Encyclopedia ". With residences on both sides of the French border, Voltaire felt relatively safe and acted a lot more relaxed than before. He supported the struggle of ordinary Genevans for an expansion franchise, and against religious intolerance. Voltaire concludes that enlightened people must act decisively, struggling with those who distribute and support for people damaging misconceptions. Since 1755, Voltaire began to work actively led by Diderot's famous "Encyclopedia, or Explanatory dictionary of the sciences, arts and crafts."

Voltaire began to write articles on literary theory and brief definitions of various terminovyu In the article "Adultery" he did not miss the opportunity to make fun of the Catholic and Jewish teologovyu zealous encyclopedic Voltaire began after 1756, when d'Alembert visited his name he suggested for the "Encyclopedia" several bold stateyyu So, in the article "Ex-thorium goiter" he expressed doubts about the reliability of the many historical stories, including tales of miracles, and in the article "Idol, idolater, idolatry," alluding to the fact that Christians, as a rule, no less idolatrous than non-Christians.

Emphasized his anticlerical series of philosophical novels "Candida" to "Jenny Stories," "Pocket Philosophical Dictionary" (amended in subsequent years, the publication of nine volumes of Voltaire "Issues relating to the" Encyclopedia ") and numerous other philosophical works of Voltaire. The same character had finished in Ferney (1769), a multivolume work on world history "The experience of the manners and spirit of nations", the introduction of which was equally antiteologicheskaya "Philosophy of History" (1765).

Sharp and direct attack on the Christian clericalism conducted in such works of Voltaire as "fifty Sermon" (1761), "sermon in London" (1763), "Dinner at the graph Boulainvilliers" (1767), "An important study Milord Bolingbroke, or Tomb of fanaticism "(1767)," Speech of the Emperor Julian "(1768)," The rights of people and the usurpation of the Popes "(1768)," Finally Explained Bible "(1776)," God and the people ", (1769), "The history of the establishment of Christianity" (1777).

Working 18-20 hours a day, Voltaire also creates many small pamphlets, dialogues, satirical skits. These public costs (30 cy) and maintenance booklet almost weekly thrown under all sorts of nicknames on the underground book market in France. Voltaire himself acquired and passed them for free distribution to those departing from Ferney visitors, which imbued confidence. Serious scientific analysis interpreted questions invariably accompanied in these works destructional sarcasm of Voltaire's famous laugh.

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