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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Francois Marie Voltaire (1694-1778)

Implementation of these creative ideas filled the first five years after returning to France Voltaire. During this time he wrote four tragedies, of which "Zaire" (1732) was the supreme achievement of Voltaire's plays (as a whole is more than fifty works) A "History of Charles XII» (1731) Voltaire glorified as an outstanding historian.

Finally, in 1733 in England under the title "Letters on the English Nation," and in 1734 in France under the title "Philosophical Letters" published the most important work of this period of Voltaire, which rightly acquired a reputation as "the first bomb" thrown them in the "old order".

"Philosophical Letters" idealized English institutions, English thought in the darkest colors painted state public institutions and minds in France. Considerable attention is paid to characteristics of Voltaire English philosophy, the greatest achievement of which he considered the teachings of Francis Bacon, and especially Locke. His preference was their empirical sensationalist materialism not only to scholasticism, but also to the rationalist "metaphysics" of Descartes, with its emphatic idealism that have adopted the then Christian "modernists" headed by Malebranche.

Bacon-Lockean philosophy of Voltaire linked to Newtonian physics, pointing to its undeniable scientific superiority over the physical theory of Descartes, which Voltaire described as "a novel about the world." The French government ordered the arrest of the author, and the book itself by the verdict of the Paris parliament was burned. Voltaire also managed to go to Holland. When the decor is somewhat exhausted, he noiselessly returned to his homeland, but the whole ten years ventured to appear in Paris. Over ten years, he lived with his mistress, the marquise du Chatelet, in her castle Sireuil sur Blaise in Champagne.

Both enthusiastically indulged not only "science tender passion", but also the natural sciences, as well as metaphysical speculation and biblical criticism. They worked for hours in our own laboratory and send reports on their experiences in Paris, the Royal Academy. Cooperation Voltaire and Madame du Chatelet continued after the end of their love story.

Continuing to work productively as a playwright and poet, Voltaire starts to develop serious philosophical problems. First, preliminary and unpublished during his lifetime Voltaire vault his philosophical thought was the "metaphysical treatise" (1734). In published "Remarks on" Thoughts of Pascal "(1734, 1743) and two poems -" Socialite "(1736) and" Essay on Man "(1737) Voltaire offers a new philosophical understanding of human problems. In "Fundamentals of Philosophy of Newton" (1738) Voltaire presents both his philosophical and scientific view.

During this period, he is seriously engaged in research work in the field of physics, his "Essay on the nature and distribution of fire" was awarded the Academy of Sciences reviews. Philosophy as the antithesis of theology and metaphysics turns into a theoretical banner of the "old order" becomes the ideological foundation of all Voltaire works. Any of the issues Voltaire seeks to highlight "lamp philosophy." This leads to a number of innovations in the understanding of the nature of man, society and world history.

In the years 1745-1746 he published the first results of its new fragmented labor. First, later significantly expanded, edition of "Essay on General History and on the manners and spirit of nations" in three volumes was undertaken by Voltaire in 1756. In August 1736, Voltaire was full of admiration for his works from Berlin letter from the Crown Prince of Prussia. Opened this letter has stimulated the formation of long-term correspondence Voltaire belief that he as a philosopher can and should give beneficent rulers for them and for their peoples advice. He writes recommendation "the Crown Prince of Prussia knowledge about the benefits of the Tsar" (1736). It not only enhances the prestige of the future ruler of Prussia, but at the same time contributed to the growth and prestige of Voltaire.

When in 1740 godu304 Voltairian correspondent was crowned under the name of Frederick II, trusting relationship with him Voltaire Considered the French government. It appealed to Voltaire to help find foreign policy plans of Frederick II, who was an ally of France in the war for "Austrian Succession. Voltaire took it as the first sign that the authorities at home and willing to listen to him, and he was not without success fulfilled delicate diplomatic mission.

After that, thanks to the growing influence at the court of his friends in high places and position him as a playwright king's mistress Madame de Pompadour, Voltaire is able not only to return to Paris, but to be in Versailles, he was appointed chamberlain and court historian. However, Louis XV in no way not going to let Voltaire play the role of philosophical mentor in his person, to which the latter was more than willing. Election to the French Academy in April 1746 (the same year was made an honorary member of Voltaire Russian Academy of Sciences) has occurred in a period of frustration Voltaire its actual role in Versailles and the growing irritation that many lampoonist incited his haters in court circles, launched a noisy campaign to discredit him as a person, writer and thinker.

Fearing prosecution for escaped him very uncomplimentary remarks about the court, Voltaire in October 1746 and runs from Paris a few weeks hiding in the castle of the Duchess of Manx. Here, critically reflecting on the life of Versailles and their participation in it, he wrote "Vision Granny" yavivsheesya brilliant debut in such glorified the Voltaire's philosophical novel genre.

Voltaire's most significant works of this genre are "Zadig" (1747), "Micromegas" (1752), "History Travel Skarmentado" (1756), "Candide" (1759), "The simple" (1767), ", Princess of Babel "(1768)," Letters Amabeda "(1769)," History of Jenny "(1775).

In early 1748, Voltaire returned to Sears, and after his death in 1749, "divine" Emily, Marquise du Chatelet, while living in Paris.

In mid-1750, losing longtime insistent requests Frederick II, Voltaire arrived in Berlin.

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