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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Francois Marie Voltaire (1694-1778)

He was imprisoned for writing satire on the Duke Philippe of Orleans.

Voltaire did not lose heart. Deceiving vigilance jailers, he began writing a tragedy "Oedipus" (in accordance with the canons of classicism - in verse), a rough draft of which was made by him several years ago and started a "Poem of the League." Troubles influential friends Voltaire was released, and after seven months of his "Oedipus" was put on the Parisian scene for a long time and did not go with her. It was the first French tragedy of the XVIII century, recognized classic, and it was the first triumph of the young poet. He was introduced to a regent who has appeared forgiving man. Devoted wife regent his tragedy, he first signed. "Arouet de Voltaire," soon the first of these words disappeared and remained "Voltaire."

Of his arrest and imprisonment Voltaire concluded that direct weapon of satire directly to one or another of the ruler is not only extremely dangerous but also impractical. The success of "Oedipus" Voltaire brought the first significant literary earnings, which, however, could not live a long time. Not wanting to put themselves in thrall to the gifts or crowned titled patrons, though not abandoning these traditional in his time livelihoods writers Voltaire finds remarkable flair and ability bourgeois businessman, engaging their capital in those financial transactions, which generally has profitable. Already in the early 1720s, Voltaire had before quite heavily, and the end of life has become a very rich man.

For the possession of material goods Voltaire never compromise their beliefs philosopher and educator. Facts irrefutable evidence that creative activity, the struggle for reason and justice were the raison d'etre of Voltaire and for them he constantly risked everything and large, until his freedom and life itself.

After the "Oedipus" as Voltaire before rising luminary French drama open wide the door to the many aristocratic houses of Paris, where an interest in art. His circle of acquaintances titled expanding.

In 1722, together with the Marquise de Ryupelmond Voltaire makes a short trip to Holland. Responding to his companion questions about whether people build their lives in accordance with the requirements of the Christian religion, Voltaire wrote in 1722 an anti-clerical poem "Pros and Cons" summarizing cycle similar poetic reflection of the previous decade.

Placing oneself follower Lucretius, Voltaire wrote about the need to expose using malicious superstition and philosophy sacred deception, free people from their gloomy thoughts focus on their fate in the "afterlife", to teach them to live the vital interests of this world, the only real world. In principle, denying that any religion was made divine revelation, Voltaire at the same time proves that the Christian religion that prescribes loving merciful God, in fact draws its cruel tyrant "whom we should hate."

Thus Voltaire declares a decisive break with Christian beliefs: "In this manner unworthy I do not recognize God, whom I shall honor ... I'm not a Christian ..." The call of the Christian religion Voltaire decided to publish - though anonymous - only ten years later, and this precaution was unnecessary. The poem caused a big fuss. Churchmen made numerous refutations of its provisions and demanded punishment of Voltaire, for they were all convinced that the author is exactly it. Urging the authorities to account, Voltaire said that the poem is written Chaulieu abbot, by the time the long-dead. Did not believe him, but the evidence of his authorship was not found, and the case was dismissed.

Advance shielding themselves from such troubles, Voltaire subsequently published under the pseudonyms of all those his numerous works that could bring persecution. By the end of his life by these nicknames approached 110!

In 1723, after the death of Philippe d'Orleans, began long that ended only in 1774, the reign of Louis XV. In the year that king's accession to the throne in France was published clandestinely Voltaire "Poem of the League." Poem painted a frightening picture of the religious wars of the XVI century.

At the end of 1725 Voltaire beaten with sticks servants certain de Rohan. Thus de Rohan has proved its "superiority" over the famous poet and playwright, after the eyes of "high society" lost his match in exchanging barbs. Voltaire tried to call de Rohan to a duel. For this, he was taken to the Bastille, and after two weeks of conclusion he was ordered to leave Paris.

His place of exile Voltaire chose England, where he arrived in May 1726 and where he lived for about three years. Voltaire was greeted here with honor as the biggest representative of contemporary French culture, adopted in the circles of the English aristocracy and heir to the throne is presented, which in 1727 became king of England by the name of George II.

Voltaire met and talked with the famous religious philosopher S. Clark, as well as the most important representative of the British idealism that time George Berkeley. Quickly mastered the English language, Voltaire examines the philosophical works of Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Toland, reads the critical study of the Christian religion of the English deists. All this is combined with Voltaire intense creative activity. He refines and complements his epic poem, reinforcing her motive in condemning religious fanaticism. Renamed "Henriade" she published in 1728 in London with a dedication to the Queen of England. And the poem is accompanied by significant success again. As a supplement to her published work aesthetic "experience of epic poetry" and the first work on the history of Voltaire - "The experience of the Civil War in France."

He begins work on new tragedies and historical research, and conceives write a book about England.

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