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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Francois Marie Voltaire (1694-1778)

Famous French writer and philosopher of the French Enlightenment. Believed that transcendental knowledge (for example, when deciding on the immortality of the soul and free will) is not possible, especially zealously fought with the church because of its dogmatism. Emphasized the value of culture, portrayed the history of humanity as the story of man's struggle for progress and education. Voltaire introduced into science the term "philosophy of history."

Works "Philosophical Letters" (1733), "Macro-megas" (1752), "Candide, or Optimism" (1759), "Philosophical Dictionary" (1764-1769), "ingenuous" (1767) and etc.

In the late 60s of the XVIII century in one of the French post offices brought a letter. No address. Without the recipient's name. Only treatment - but what!

"King of poets, philosophers peoples Mercury Europe, speaker of the fatherland, historian kings panegyrist heroes, supreme judge in matters of taste patron of arts benefactor talent connoisseur genius, scourge of all pursuers enemy fanatical defender of the oppressed, the father of orphans, to follow the example rich people, support for people in need, immortal sample all the highest virtues. "

Enlightened officials immediately sent a letter to Voltaire - who else could relate so loud epithets? All the spiritual quest of the XVIII century penetrated two interrelated trends liberation of mind, felt his maturity and strength, from the fetters of religious dogmas, and passionate search for a new, not imposed from the outside authority. Embodiment of these searches was to become Voltaire.

Francois Marie Arouet, which began in 1718 with Voltaire and call themselves by that name entered the history of French and world culture, born November 21, 1694 in Paris. Voltaire distant ancestors on the paternal side lived in southwestern France in the province of Poitou, where he held various crafts and trade. Santa Voltaire rose step higher on the ladder of social hierarchy, becoming a wealthy merchant felts in Paris. This allowed the father of Voltaire to go further. Having made a successful career in public service, first as a prosperous notary, then an official of the Treasury, he gained their income and personal nobility in addition to that he married the daughter of the landed gentry.

François Marie was the fifth, the last child in the family. Home education and the education of the child, who was seven years old lost his mother, carried out under the guidance of his godfather Abbe Francois Chateauneuf de Castanet. At the age of ten Francois Marie became a pupil is run by Jesuit college of Louis the Great. Despite the fact that François Marie was among the best students and distinguished by the same extraordinary poetic talent at one time was the question of his removal from the board for questioning in the truths of Christianity and reading the works of freethinking.

Faced with this unpleasant prospect boy "turned" into one of the most devout disciples. V1713 year course of study at the Jesuit college graduated young man who three years later would write as something which goes without saying that the "enlightened mind" can not "believe in chimerical history of both testaments, in sacred dreams crazy mystics, pious and idlers unsociable who refuse genuine pleasure for imaginary glory. " The fact that consciousness Francois Marie literally start from infancy to absorb the ideas of the French freethinking, which under the name of "libertinage" was common among highly educated French aristocrats who were dissatisfied with the absolute power of the king and subjected to disgrace by the latter. In place of the Christian ideals of "holiness", focused on the gloomy ascetic life, Liberty put the cheerful Epicureanism.

Abbe de Chateauneuf was a staunch libertenom. Instead of instructing his godson in the basics of the Christian faith, he began his teaching mission with a three-year reading Francois Marie freethinking satirical poem "Moizada" that the child memorized. Then introduced the boy with other freethinking poetry. First poetic experiments of the Francois Marie inspired samples of this kind. Abbe de Chateauneuf introduced pupil led the French poets of the time of Rousseau, who was himself in his early works gave tribute to the ideas libertinage. Francois Marie admired poems in his declining years the famous courtesan Ninon de Lenclos, become by this time in the eyes of freethinkers a symbol of protest against the official hypocrisy. Finally, the 12-year-old Jesuit college student was introduced to his godfather "Temple Society" - one of the most important clubs in Paris libertenov. All this influenced the decision of 16-year-old to become a writer Voltaire, despite the risk of unsecured existence and strong resistance father.

Attempts to make the father of her youngest son respectable officer failed. Burdened imposed on it in the service of one of the law firms in Paris, the young Voltaire, wishing to receive public recognition as a poet, sends a tender announced by the Academy of godly-allegiance "Ode on a vow of Louis XIII», written by all the rules of classical poetics. However, the winner turns out to be another contender, as he patronized influential academician. Finding the decision unfair, Voltaire attacked the Academy in the satirical poem "The Bog." Poem quickly began to spread in manuscript copies, and soon was published by French immigrants in the Netherlands. Refuge from possible trouble with the authorities, Voltaire found in the castle longtime friend of the family of the Marquis de Komart (conversations with him about the reign of Henry IV and Louis XIV gave the exiled young new creative impulses).

At the beginning of the Regency Voltaire gets to 11 months (1717-1718) in the main prison for political criminals - infamous Bastille.

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