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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)

It was November 14, 1716.

Leibniz sole heir, his nephew, the priest Leffler, was to inherit. Lovely portrait of uncle he sold a few thalers, and to the delight of his, he inherited a large sum of money. When this nephew Leibniz returned home, his wife, is expected to receive a penny before overjoyed that her make an impact.

Neglecting powers and hatred of churchmen to the great thinker and pursued him after death. Whole month philosopher body lay in the church basement without burial. Lutheran pastors, almost openly called Leibniz "infidel", questioned the possibility of dumping him in a Christian cemetery. When eventually modest motorcade headed to the grave, the coffin were only a few people, almost all of them random person, and from the court was not present one. And one of the few witnesses of ceremonies, who understood the true meaning of what happened, said, "This man was the glory of Germany, and he was buried like a robber."

Founded Leibniz Berlin Academy of Sciences, has long been the president elect another pretext that Leibniz stopped their scientific activities, while not a word commemorated its founder. Royal Society considered indecent praise opponent Newton. Only in the Paris Academy of Sciences Fontenell famous eulogy read Leibniz which admitted him one of the greatest scientists and philosophers of all time. After the philosopher remained significant printed and handwritten broader scientific and philosophical heritage.

According to Feuerbach, "all spiritual gifts, which are commonly found in parts, it came together: the ability of the scientist in the field of pure and applied mathematics, philosophical and poetic gift, the gift of a philosopher and metaphysician empiricist philosopher, historian and inventor, memory, relieves him from labor to re-read what has been written once, like a microscope eye botany and anatomy and broad-minded synthesis taxonomy, patience and sensitivity scientist, energy and courage and self-taught independent researcher, reaching up to the basics "

Unfortunately, the scope, the diversity of interests and vital ties prevented the full implementation of its multi-talent. Many of his ideas were not realized. But what he did in science and philosophy, an epoch in the development of European thought. In the history of the philosophy of Leibniz characterized in many different ways. Some called his philosophizing logician, others - religious philosopher, concerned mainly with how to give scientific respectability to the provisions of the faith.

In Leibniz saw what devout and pious theist, the pantheist, the freethinker, deist, and philosophical - that the forerunner of Kant, the early educator, who left no genuine schools and in fact survived their ideas. Who was Leibniz in reality?

Leibniz - mathematician and physicist, lawyer and historian, archaeologist and linguist, economist and politician - a new type of scientist, he was a great inventor and organizer of scientific academies and societies. "Philosophical schools certainly would have done better, combining theory with practice, as do the medical, chemical and mathematical school" - he said. Thus, anxiety about the consequences of the neglect of political economy led Leibniz to do not only general economic issues, but also the laws of monetary circulation, and he found the dependence of the falling prices of precious metals from the importation of silver from Spanish mines overseas.

His inquisitive mind turned to the development of the silver mines of the Harz, and after a series of experiments invented better than before, pumps for pumping groundwater. Repeatedly going down into the ground, he drew attention to the structure of layers of rocks of mine used to make the shaft excavation. Thus arose the idea of ​​"Protogenes" (1691), a work that contains arguments about the development of the solid and liquid shell of our planet and its plant-animal population in the distant past, supplemented by a "New Essay Concerning Human Understanding" guess about the variability of animal species .

As aptly said K. Fisher, for Leibniz "history becomes the history of the Harz earth." "Protogeya" remains unfinished, not yet become that branch of knowledge that Leibniz labeled as "natural geography", as we call geology and paleontology, but it was an application for the establishment of such science in the future. And whatever a great scientist - projects abolition of serfdom, the dyeing business organization, in the employment of the urban poor, drafting memoranda of insurance companies, historical research, mathematical, - he never confine within just this issue, always saw its relationship with the broader and deeper issues.

Great merits of Leibniz as an organizer of science, medical and book business. Becoming in 1673 a member of the Royal Society, he laid the foundation of several academies and societies for the study of language and history. He became the first president of the Prussian Academy of Sciences in 1700 and initiated the establishment of similar institutions in Vienna and St. Petersburg. Three times he met with Peter I, who invited him to Russia.

The note on the future of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences of the German Enlightenment emphasized the need to focus on the practical needs of the vast and still largely unsettled country. It is known that he also gave Peter I thought of organizing observations of the deviations of the magnetic needle in different parts of the Russian Empire.

"German Lomonosov" dreamed of the international community of scientists, a kind of "republic" political rights, a solid technical base for the organization of experiments, an extensive library and archives. This international organization would be able to take on the edition of the encyclopedia, designed to widely disseminate new science.

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