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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)

The result was a monumental work, which is still an important source for the history of the Middle Ages, Leibniz published under the title - "Code regulations of international law." Total planned three volumes, but due to financial difficulties Leibniz managed to publish only the first.

Bright spot in the life of a scientist were philosophical discussions with the Duchess Sophia. When he entered the Hanover Leibniz service Duchess Sophia was fifty years old, and her daughter Sophia Charlotte - twelve. Philosopher himself at this time was thirty-four years. Mother instructed him to educate her daughter. Four years later, a young girl married Prince Frederick of Brandenburg X, who later became King Frederick I. However, serious, thoughtful, dreamy Sophia Charlotte could not stand empty and meaningless life of the court. About Leibniz she kept the memory as a dear, beloved teacher, circumstances favored a new, more enduring union.

Even before the novel Sophia Charlotte in 1696 Leibniz did offer one maid, but she requested time to think. Meanwhile, 50-year-old married Leibniz changed his mind and said, "Until now, I imagined that I always have time, and now it turns out that late."

The first years of the 18th century was the era of the happiest in my life Leibniz. In 1700, he turned 54. He was at the zenith of his fame, his life was warmed high, pure love of women - it is quite worthy of the mind, gentle and meek, without excessive sensitivity. Love this woman, philosophical conversations with her, reading the works of other philosophers, especially Beyle - all this could not affect the activity of the Leibniz. He worked on a system of "pre-established harmony" (1693-1696). Conversations with Sophia Charlotte of skeptical arguments Bayle gave him the idea to write a full statement of their own system. He worked on "monadology" and on the "theodicy", but Sophia Charlotte has not lived up to the end of this work. In early 1705 Queen Sofia Sharlotga went to his mother. On the road, she caught a cold and after a brief illness, February 1, 1705 died.

Leibniz was overwhelmed with grief. In the first months after her death, he could not engage in any philosophy or science. Queen attachment to Leibniz was so well known that all ambassadors of foreign powers and others considered it their duty to put Leibniz visits of condolence.

Upon the death of Sophia of Hanover (mother Sophia Charlotte) only close friend for Leibniz became Princess Caroline, Princess of Wales later. Leibniz extremely fond of the young princess. Their associated memories of the late Prussian queen. Carolina in the love of science slightly inferior Sophia Charlotte.

His life was a lot of joyless. For many years he had enrolled as head of the court library, and in this capacity he visited for three successive rulers of Hanover. When the last of them, Georg Ludwig, in 1714 inherited the English crown, he did not want to take Leibniz himself.

Surrounded by suspicion, contempt and notoriety poluateista, a great philosopher and scholar lived out the last years, appearing sometimes without salary and suffering extreme hardship. For the English, he was hated by the enemy Newton in disputes about scientific priority for the Germans it was alien and dangerous as people reinterpret all common in their own way. But before he had a hard time: they had all these years to get along with the crowned sovereigns and their ministers to perform their assignments sometimes painful, such as the compilation of genealogical tree house Welf. Leibniz had to listen and obey. Trips to other areas of Germany, Austria and Italy, connected with various, including political, errands, and Leibniz used to expand scientific ties, and great scientific discoveries, the composition of his posthumous fame, he did, of course, not with the blessing Hanoverian rulers, and in addition to their jobs.

Was the result of a bitter personal life and work of Leibniz, misunderstood and despised, oppressed and persecuted by the ignorant and haughty court clique, he survived the crash of his best hopes. With his deep understanding of reality, he wrote: "Do not be wars ravaging Europe since the founding of the first royal societies and academies, it would be done a lot, and could already take advantage of our labors. But the powers that be for the most part do not know any of their values, or that they lose, neglecting serious progress of knowledge. "

In the third ruler - Elector Georg Ludwig Leibniz had particularly bad. Repeated reprimands for "negligence" absurd suspicions termination of payment of salaries - so the aged philosopher was rewarded for many years of service. Him and then made it clear that he no longer needed and nothing to eat their own bread.

Until the age of 50 Leibniz rarely sick. He loved the sweet, even in wine shunt sugar, but generally did not drink much wine, ate with a good appetite, but was not a foodie. He usually went to bed until after midnight and get up no later than seven o'clock in the morning. This way of life he led to a great age. It often happened that Leibniz fell asleep in his chair from exhaustion and slept until morning. From sedentary work and malnutrition, he developed gout. The last two years of life spent in Leibniz constant physical suffering.

In early August 1716 he was better, and hastened to Hanover Leibniz, wishing finally finish notorious Brunswick history. He caught a cold, felt an attack of gout and rheumatic pains in the shoulders. Of all the drugs Leibniz trusted only one that had once given him a Jesuit friend. Leibniz took this time overdosed and felt sick. Arrived doctor found the situation so dangerous that he ran to the pharmacy for medicine. During his absence, Leibniz wanted to write something, but he could not read the writing. He went to bed, closed his eyes and died.

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