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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)

But the future philosopher and scientist used the slightest opportunity to see the world plunge into the atmosphere of scientific debate with intellectual luminaries of the era, establish and expand the conversation with them.

In 1667 Leibniz went with letters of recommendation to the Elector of Mainz, which was immediately presented. Acquainted with the works of Leibniz, Elector invited the young scientist to participate in the preparation of a new set of laws. The work was entrusted to Lasser and Leibniz. It is said that Leibniz bought two editions of the Roman Code of Justinian, cut text, pasted on paper and made notes in the margins, comments and revisions. While Roman law was the basis of the legislation of the German states.

Within five years, Leibniz held a prominent position at the court of Mainz, performing highly useful for their spiritual development functions lawyer, diplomat and historian. This period in his life was a time of fruitful literary career he wrote a number of works of philosophical and political content. In the philosophy of Leibniz outlined the basics of their future system. V1672, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Paris, where he spent four years. In the French capital he managed personally and through correspondence to make contact with such titans of science as Fermat, Huygens, Papin, and with such prominent philosophers as Malebranche and Arno.

In 1673 Leibniz presented his model of arithmetic machine to the Paris Academy of Sciences. This machine is produced not only addition and subtraction, but multiplication, division, and also raises a number to a power and square roots. Thanks to the invention of a new machine arithmetic Leibniz became a foreign member of the London Academy. The latter, known as the Royal Society, the Leibniz adopted in its members a year after the entry into this society Newton.

Newton for ten years before Leibniz began to study, in vylivshemusya discovery of the differential calculus, but Leibniz already in 1684, ie three years before Newton published a report about a similar discovery that triggered the painful dispute about scientific championship. Leibniz was credited to be delivered that his interpretation of the differential calculus was associated not only with a much more comfortable than its British rival, symbolism, but with profound ideas and general philosophical nature and broader understanding of the role of mathematical abstractions in the knowledge of all.

From Paris Leibniz was able to make short trips to London, Amsterdam and The Hague, where he met with Newton and Boyle, met several times with Spinoza (last time - in 1676, six months before the death of the Dutch thinker). But court life in Paris placing the boredom, so in 1676 he accepted an offer of Hanover Duke Johann Friedrich take place librarian.

"In moments of relaxation and pleasure, we will be very willing to talk to you," - wrote the Duke of Leibniz, offering him a permanent position and the annual salary of 400 thalers. Johann Friedrich was adopted Catholicism Lutheran differed moderation and religious tolerance. Shortly after arriving in Hannover Leibniz wrote, "I live a virtuous monarch so that obedience to him is better than any freedom."

In 1679 Johann Friedrich died, much to the chagrin of Leibniz, who was sincerely attached to him. Soon after his accession to the throne of Hanover Duke Ernst August, Leibniz was appointed official historian of Hanover home. Leibniz took up the matter in good faith. He began with a detour those German states where once ruled the Guelphs. Leibniz went to Southern Germany, visited Munich, Frankfurt am Main, Nuremberg.

Apart from the question of the origin of Braunschweig home, Leibniz was charged another case, he, where possible, to identify opportunities for training church union between the Protestant and the Catholic world. In Hanover, the project contributed to family circumstances. Widow converted to Catholicism Johann Friedrich was zealous Catholic, the reigning Duke Ernst August - a Lutheran, his wife Sofia - Genevan. Duke and his wife were rather tolerant. The idea of ​​the union took Leibniz already because his own views were higher than those of religious disputes that were fought between Catholics and Protestants.

In his own words (in a letter to the Duke Ernst August), he valued in the Roman church of its tradition, but could not agree with its dogmatic basis, largely contradict reason. During his travels (1687-1690) Leibniz visited Vienna, Venice, Modena, Rome, Florence, Naples and other cities. In Rome, he was received with great honor. All kinds of learned societies invited him to attend its meetings, many elected a member. At Roman scholars and the papal court Leibniz made such a favorable impression that the Pope himself, through Cardinal Kozakotu, offered him the custodian of the Vatican Library. This post has been a godsend for Leibniz, but he put a condition - accept the Catholic faith. Leibniz refused and resisted the temptation.

Of scientists with whom Leibniz met in Rome, a special impression on him Jesuit Grimaldi, shortly before returning from China. In Bologna, Leibniz met the famous chemist, physicist and mathematician Gulelmini that drew him to participate in Leipzig "Proceedings." This mathematician Leibniz so highly valued that elected him judge of the arbitration dispute, started it with the inventor of the famous boiler Papineau. Gulelmini Leibniz introduced the famous anatomist Malpighi, Leibniz was interested in everything, constantly watching the discoveries in the field of natural science and medicine.

Finally philosopher arrived in Modena and one ancient Benedictine monastery found what he was looking for with such persistence and patience, as if it was a great scientific discovery. He found the tombstones, which read history velfskogo home. During his long journey Leibniz discovered many historical documents.

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