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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)

The German philosopher, mathematician, physicist, linguist. In the spirit of rationalism developed the doctrine of innate ability of the mind to the knowledge of the higher categories of being and the universal and necessary truths of logic and mathematics ("New experiments on the human mind," 1704).

The real world, according to Leibnitz, is composed of substances - monads ("Monadology", 1714), the present world was created by God as "the best of all possible worlds" ("theodicy", 1710).

Anticipated the principles of modern mathematical logic. One of the founders of the differential and integral calculus.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born on June 21 (July 1) 1646. Leibniz's father was quite well-known lawyer and for twelve years he taught philosophy, occupying the post of assessor at the Philosophy Faculty of the University of Leipzig. He was also a "public professor of morality." His third wife, Katerina Shmukk, the mother of the great Leibniz, was the daughter of a prominent professor of law. According to family tradition Leibniz other philosophical and legal field. Father tried to develop a child's curiosity and often talked to him episodes of sacred and secular history. These stories, in the words of Leibniz, sank deep into his soul and were the strongest impression of his early childhood.

V1652 year Gottfried lost his father. Mother Leibniz that contemporaries considered intelligent and practical woman, caring about education son gave it to school Nicolai, which was considered at that time the best in Leipzig. Assistant to the president of this school was the famous scientist and philosopher James Tomasi, father of the famous Christian Thomasius. However, the school's teachers, with few exceptions, were not superior talents. Besides physics and Libya, Leibniz in his school years was fond of Virgil knew by heart almost all the "Aeneid." He read the best works in the field of scholastic logic.

Theological treatises were also interested in him. He read Luther's writings about free will, polemical treatises Lutherans, Reformed, Jesuits, Arminians, Thomists and Jansenists. These new classes of Leibniz alarmed his tutors They feared that Gottfried would be "clever scholastic." "They did not know - philosopher writes in his autobiography - that my spirit could not be filled with one-way content."

Leibniz was not yet fourteen years old when he was showed another talent - poetry. In the day of Pentecost, one of the students had to read a celebratory speech in Latin. Leibniz one day wrote it in three hexameters!

"Two things - Leibniz writes, - brought me a huge favor, though they usually do harm. First, I was, in fact, self-taught, secondly, in every science, as soon as I acquired it on the first thing I was always looking for new, often simply because they did not have time enough to learn the ordinary ... "

Gottfried was fifteen years old when in 1661 after several years of self-education, he entered the Faculty of Law of the University of Leipzig. Leibniz acquainted with the views of Descartes, Bacon, Kepler, Galileo, and other thinkers.

Seventeen-year-Leibniz brilliantly passed the examination for a master's degree "of Liberal Arts and the world's wisdom," that is literature and philosophy.

Shortly after the master's exam he suffered severe grief: he lost his mother. It briefly interrupted by scientific studies of Leibniz. After his mother's death he was engaged, except law, Greek philosophy. Leibniz tried to harmonize systems of Plato and Aristotle both between themselves and with the system of Descartes. He sought not to the creation of a compilation system, and to synthesize, to find common principles, absorbing a former systems as unilateral particular. The main question, who was it, was as follows: Is it possible connection in one supreme head of the two opposing worldview, one of which admits only the mechanical nature of the principle, while the other sees in all expediency?

In 1666 he graduated from the University of Leipzig, having studied, moreover, one semester in Jena nearby enthusiast mathematical method of learning E. Weigel. But the university authorities refused hometown Leibniz in a degree, rejecting his thesis. But he brilliantly proved right on a doctorate in the same year in Altdorf, near Nuremberg city.

Leibniz refused proposed in Altdorf university career she has held down the development of his original thought. He went to neighboring Altdorf main city of the republic, Nuremberg, where he lived his namesake (according to other sources, a distant cousin) Justus Leibniz, with whom the philosopher Leibniz was familiar. In Nuremberg is famous society of the Rosicrucians, which were headed by then preacher Velfer Justus. Leibniz also belonged to this mysterious society. It is known that Descartes in his time and was unable to learn the secrets of the Rosicrucians. Gottfried showed resourcefulness. He took the most famous works of the alchemists wrote most of them obscure expressions and formulas and made a note in which, by his own admission, he could not understand anything.

This nonsense, he gave the chairman alchemical society to take it to work as a clear proof of a thorough acquaintance with alchemical secrets. Rosicrucians immediately introduced Leibniz in his lab and found it at least adept. Leibniz for some time was the secretary of the society, led protocols, recording the results of experiments and did excerpts from famous alchemical books. Many members of society even appealed to Leibniz for information, and he, in turn, came a mystery. Leibniz never regretted about the time spent in the society of the Rosicrucians. However, for the life of independent research scientist at the Leibniz lacked funds, he had to enter the service of the titled and crowned rulers, and according to them - more or less at different times - then passed all his life.

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