French mathematician, physicist and religious philosopher and writer. Having become acquainted with the Jansenism, with 1655 led polumonashesky lifestyle. The controversy with the Jesuits was reflected in the "Letters to the provincial" (1656-1657) - French satirical prose masterpiece. In "Thoughts" (published in 1669), Pascal develops understanding of the tragedy and the fragility of a person who is between two abysses - infinity and nothingness (the man - "thinking reed"). Way of understanding the mysteries of life and salvation of man from despair seen in Christianity.

Blaise Pascal was born on June 19, 1623 in Clermont-Ferrand is located in a hilly and picturesque countryside France Auvergne.

Pascal family belonged to the judicial nobility, or "mantle of nobility." Father Blaise Pascal Et-en was a man well-educated and talented. He served as an elected royal adviser taxpaying financial district of Auvergne, and in 1626 bought a second position of President of the Chamber charges in the nearby town Montferrand. He was a very wealthy man. Blaise's mother, Antoinette Begon, daughter of a judge, died when Blaise was two and a half years, his elder sister Gilberte six years old, and the youngest only a few months, Jacqueline. Thirty-eight-Etienne Pascal decided not to marry and devote her life to children. Being thoughtful teacher, he trained them in the spirit of humanistic principles Montaigne and gave them perfect for that time home education.

Father Blaise taught from childhood to independent research. All biographers note that Pascal is the most rarely seen example of a very early manifestation of genius. He amazed and delighted their loved ones first, and then contemporaries depth insights into things, originality and paradoxical simplicity of solving complex problems of the time.

Etienne Pascal taught children classical languages, Latin and Greek, grammar, mathematics, history, geography and other sciences.

Blaise learned to read and write in four years, was not age wise and judicious, adults put their questions to a standstill and was never satisfied poluotvetami, had a phenomenal memory, the fame of which survived him. He could easily make complex calculations in his mind and in general showed increased interest in mathematics.

Child's mental development is far ahead of the physical, which could not disturb his father. Father tried not to overload the son science. He even shut him bookcase child to not overwork myself reading. Finding her son and some unusual passionate interest in mathematics, he hid from his books on geometry.

In 10 years, Blaise had written "Treatise on the sounds," the reason for which was the seemingly childish curiosity why rattled earthenware plate at the table. This has already happened in Paris, where in 1631 Etienne Pascal moved with the children. In Paris, the father of Blaise become acquainted with many famous mathematicians then Roberval, Desargues, Hardy, Le Payer, Midorzhem etc., which since 1636 were collected in cell Franciscan monk Marin Mersenne, a person's education and versatile scientist to discuss the news in science and cultural life in Europe, argue about the complex issues and propose solutions, etc.

Young Pascal gained access to scientific circle Mersenne in 13 years and immediately proved to be the most active and creative-minded scientist. In 16 years, Blaise wrote "An Essay on the conic sections," a small masterpiece in Mathematics 53 lines, entered the golden fund of mathematics.

Pascal gives the formulation of one of the fundamental theorems of projective geometry, which delighted mathematician Desargues called "great Pascaleva theorem" three points of intersection of the opposite sides of a hexagon inscribed in a conic lie on a straight line. This discovery Blaise fame among scientists. They are interested and Descartes, who in a letter to Mersenne expressed a desire to meet with "the experience of Pascal."

According to Mersenne, Pascal deduced from his theorem about the "mystical hexagon" about 400 other theorems and corollaries. In the "address of the Paris Academy of mathematical" (as informally called Mersenne circle) in 1654 Pascal notifies scientists trained them many scientific works, among which are named and "complete work on conic sections." With the latest in Paris in 1676 and met Leibniz very urgently advised him to publish what and wrote in a letter to Etienne Perier, Pascal's nephew. But the work has not been published, and later it was lost. Meanwhile, this work contained a number of such solutions and theorems, which outpaced the development of mathematical science at 100-150 years.

In early January 1640, Etienne Pascal children arrived in Rouen. Situation in Rouen generalship was tense and difficult due to the uprising of the poor broken out. Etienne Pascal much time spent on various counts. To facilitate the work of his father, Blaise decided to create arithmetical machine. This project he gave five years (1640-1645) of his life. With the help of hired laborers and craftsmen Pascal created more than 50 different models of cars before settling on the final version.

The principle of operation it was an adder because car felt slow, but sure. Later Leibniz improves model Pascal.

V1649 by Pascal received from the King "privilege on arithmetical machine," according to which the author establishes the right to priority, as well as its production and sale. However, the hard work for the past five years has undermined the already weak health Pascal. His torment began grueling headaches from which he suffered the rest of his life. Blaise was a kind of passionate and nutty, capable of complete self-giving and self-sacrifice for the sake of truth, science, new ideas. He could not do anything half-bad.