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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

English philosopher. Geometry and mechanics for Hobbes - common patterns of scientific thinking. Nature - a set of extended bodies differing magnitude, figure, position and motion. State, which Hobbes likens mythical biblical monster Leviathan - the result of a contract between people that ended the natural state of "war of all against all." Major works: "Leviathan" (1651), "Fundamentals of Philosophy" (1642-1658).

Thomas Hobbes was born April 5, 1588 near the small town of Malmesbury, in the northern part of Wiltshire, one of the south-eastern counties of England. His father was the village priest, his mother came from a peasant family. As biographers narrate Hobbes, he was born prematurely, as his mother was disturbed by reports that the Spanish Armada approached England. Despite this he lived to a ripe old age - 91 years old, retaining the clarity of mind to the end of his days.

Initial education Hobbes received in the parish school. With eight years he attended school in Malmesbury, and then studied at the nearby Westport, in a private school, there are some open Latimer, a lover and connoisseur of ancient languages. Latimer drew attention to the gifted child and began to give him extra lessons in the evenings. Hobbes successes were so great that the incomplete 14 years he was able to do a Latin translation of a verse tragedy of ancient Greek playwright Euripides' "Medea".

In 1603, with the assistance of Latimer and material support of his uncle, a wealthy artisan, who replaced him died shortly before his father, Hobbes enrolled in one of the colleges of Oxford University. There he spent five years studying the Aristotelian logic and physics, as well as improving their knowledge of Greek and Latin. At Oxford, in bookbinding and book shops he could spend hours studying maps and atlases. After receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree and to give lectures on logic, the young Hobbes did not want, however, to replenish the ranks of university professors themselves. Scholastic method that prevailed at Oxford and other universities of the era, pushed his academic career.

It is not known what would have been the future fate of the philosopher, if he had not received an offer to become a mentor and companion of the young Baron Cavendish, then bore the title of Count of Devonshire. Hobbes agreed and in 1608 entered the family close to the court aristocrats, first on the Rights of a tutor, then - personal secretary.

In 1610 Hobbes goes with his pupil in a trip abroad, which lasted about three years. They went to France agitated while the murder of King Henry IV Catholic fanatic Ravaillac, visit Italy.

In 1620 in London comes in Latin chief philosophical work of Francis Bacon, "The New Organon", which could not, of course, does not attract the attention of Hobbes. Soon held and their personal acquaintance. Bacon after his ouster in 1621 from public office devoted himself entirely to scientific activities. Hobbes is often associated with him in this last period of his life, and even provided substantial assistance in the preparation of the Latin edition of "experience or instruction." For the same years and have to work another English philosopher Herbert - author of "A Treatise of the truth" (1624), laid the foundations of the religious and philosophical concepts of deism. Hobbes was familiar with Herbert and in one of his letters praised his works.

In 1628 there made Hobbes English translation of Thucydides. In the preface, he tried to explain that the history of the Peloponnesian War to help his contemporaries understand better the socio-political reality.

After the death of his patron, Count Devonshire Hobbes leaves his family and becomes a tutor the son of one of the Scottish nobleman. With his pupil, he commits a second trip to the continent. They come to France for 18 months living in Paris.

In Hobbes enough time to study and reflection. He pays a lot of attention, in particular, the problem of method. Casually acquainted with the "beginning" of Euclid, Hobbes was amazed persuasiveness and logical proofs of geometric theorems. He has a thought about the possibility of applying a similar method to study philosophy, politics and morality.

Hobbes return to England (in 1631) was accelerated to become his proposal to return to the family of the late Earl of Devonshire and take care of the education of his son.

By this time, familiarity with the work of Galileo Hobbes "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems - Ptolemaic and Copernican." This work, which was released in 1632, made a great impression on Hobbes and gave undoubtedly a new impetus to his reflections on natural phenomena, methods of studying it.

Third trip to the continent, undertaken by Hobbes (along with his pupil) in the years 1634-1636, was for him especially important. It was during this period of Hobbes, while in Paris, met with the abbot Mersenne and enters his philosophical circle, which is the center of advanced scientific ideas of the time. Suffice it to mention such names as Fermat, Pascal, Descartes, Huygens, Gassendi. Mersenne introduced Hobbes with his famous friends. Florence Hobbes meets with Galileo and talks to him.

1637 Hobbes finds home, where gradually formed a revolutionary situation. Harbinger of the coming revolution was a rebellion in Scotland. It was directed against the aspirations of Charles I abolish the autonomy of Scotland in civil and ecclesiastical affairs and set it mode "one-man rule." The immediate cause of the uprising was an attempt to enter Archbishop Laud in Scotland Anglican church service and thereby deprive the Scottish Calvinists (Puritans) the right to freedom to practice their cult.

Thomas Hobbes, a commoner by birth, lived for many years in the family of English aristocrats in constant touch with the representatives of the nobility, among whom he had many friends and acquaintances.

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