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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Erasmus (1466/1469-1536)

But it does not agree Erasmus. He prefers to escape, and at the end of 1521 moved to Basel. In Basel, he lived freely, and perhaps even happy, in spite of all the storms that raged around. Reformation got forward steadily, the Great Peasant War in Germany, the war in Italy. Here, sheltered from the heart-rending battle enemies, he calmly and soberly defined his position in the fight, which marked the beginning of the performance of Luther.

At first he sympathized with Luther and enjoy, although shunned by public support, believing that this would only exacerbate strife privately strongly redeeming. Then, still in Louvain, he tried to reconcile the warring, urged both sides to mutual restraint, while making sure all the clearer that way Luther - not his way, and that if they were allies, it is only temporary. And in Basel, not under an assumed pressure and on its own initiative, the inner needs, he distanced himself from Luther to the end ("Free Will", 1524).

But that did not make it to join the camp obscurantists and avid papists. He retained his beliefs intact and continued to express them to the end of life, exposing themselves under fire both camps. Basel period lasted until 1529, when supporters of reform prevailed. And again, as once in Louvain, Erasmus is forced to flee, only this time he makes a winning its independence from reformers who, among other things, hastened to declare their presence at Sunday worship compulsory.

April 13, 1529, he sailed up the Rhine, the purpose of his journey - the city of Freiburg, which is under the authority of the Austrian rulers. In spite of everything continues to publish and translate the Church Fathers and "pagan authors," wrote theological, moralistic, pedagogical, erudite philological and even political treatises of textbooks.

In those years created a large part of the book "Conversations easily." By the same data applies very expensive for the next centuries to Erasmus, part of his legacy - paraphrases (ie detailed retellings-interpretation) books of the New Testament. Erasmus remained a model of intelligent Europe. Countless friends still surround him adoringly and concerns, often excessive, and therefore painful. Does not dry out and a stream of letters. Secular and ecclesiastical princes vied showered His mercy, Pope Paul III offered him a cardinal's robes.

He lives in Freiburg, perhaps more relaxed than in Basel. Political events almost do not care about it anymore - years and disease take their toll. But neither age nor ailments have no control over the inexhaustible capacity for work of this man - one book follows another "On an early and proper upbringing of children" (1529), "Explanation of Psalm XXII», «Discourse about the war with the Turks," ", O children decency of manners "(1530)," The interpretation of the Creed, "" O beloved harmony in the Church "(1533)," On the preparation for death "(1534)," Ecclesiastes, or evangelical preacher "(1535 ). And that - not counting the new editions of ancient authors and church fathers, translation "apologies", collections of his letters, additions to "talk". Viyune 1535 Erasmus came to Basel to personally oversee the printing of "preacher of the Gospel," which he wrote many years and he is highly appreciated.

He expected to return soon, or, on the contrary, continue your journey and visit their homeland - Holland, Brabant, - but by the end of summer decided to stay. There is no doubt that it acted to the extreme hard news of the execution of Thomas More, slanderously accused of treason and beheaded July 6, 1535. Apparently, he really felt that life was over.

Erasmus died on the night of July 12, 1536 in the house of Jerome Frobenius, son and heir of Johann Frobenius. July 18 he was with all the honors in the Cathedral of Basel.

Erasmus was a kind of fine, delicate, easily vulnerable, are in urgent need for peace and harmony, hating strife. It is easy and fast to converge with different people. And yet he was touchy, distrustful, resentful, grumpy and old age these qualities evolved to the size of almost manic. He needed constant support, approval, praise, and in his youth, they are often lacking, and wept to exhaustion was disgusted by life. He hated the smugness and narcissism, assuming, as Plato, this defect source of all ills. He was suspicious and literally - was desperately afraid of disease contagion. Fearlessness in such matters, in his view - not a sign of courage, but stupidity.

Despite poor health, Erasmus was always in the works. He wrote remarkably quickly, without a break, "one spirit", but almost never reread written, did not make any amendments to this part of the case caused him such boredom, which he could not overcome. Erasmus was an opponent of philosophy, as construction on the Aristotelian-scholastic type, which focuses on the problems of metaphysics, physics, and dialectics.

This form of philosophy Erasmus Determined such contempt that the "Praise of Folly" even writes: "This is followed by philosophers, honored for his long beard and a cloak, which some believe themselves to be wise, as all other mortals mnyat wandering in the darkness. How sweet they rave erecting countless worlds, calculus size of the sun, stars, moon and orbits, as if measured their own span and twine, they interpret the causes of lightning, winds, eclipses, and other unexplained phenomena and never in no doubt as privy to all the secrets of nature-zizhditelnitsy and just turned back to the board of the gods.

But nature chuckles down over all their guesses, and there is nothing in their science fair. Besides the best proof - their endless arguments with each other. Nothing in reality knowing they imagine they have learned everything, and yet even themselves unable to understand and often short-sightedness or absent-mindedly not notice the holes and stones at his feet.

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