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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Erasmus (1466/1469-1536)

In Italy, there was a war, Pope Julius II with the help of the French "return under the authority of the Holy See" of the city, unwilling to submit to this power or had time to forget about it. Pope besieged Bologna and 11 November Erasmus witnessed his triumphal entry into the city subdued.

Erasmus remained a year in Bologna, not only looking after their wards as adding "Collection of Proverbs" Greek material. In November 1507, he wrote the famous printing house in Venice Alda Manutius, offering him a reprint of a translation of Euripides, published in Paris. Aldus invited Erasmus in response to him. He volunteered to print and proverbs, and eight months later was born a collection of three times greater than the former. Now it was called "Three hiliady and about the same hundred proverbs," or abbreviated "Hiliady proverbs" (hiliada - thousand).

April 21, 1509 Henry VII died in English, and was succeeded by his son, Henry VIII. Educator new sovereign during his adolescence was Lord Mountjoy, who remembered Erasmus and sent him money to go with a request to return to London. By the way - in the saddle, in the boat, at inns, on board little vessel, sailing to Antwerp in Dover, - he had devised and perhaps thought out in detail "Praise of Folly." It was written in just one week in London home Mora, without a single book (servant with luggage behind), all quotations cited by memory. It was August 1509, but the book manuscript was only in the autumn of 1511, in Paris (For information on how these have been two years in England, no information has been preserved)

In the years 1511-1514 Erasmus lives mainly in Cambridge, teaches Greek, lectures on theology, but his main occupation - work on the letters of St. Jerome and the New Testament. He is preparing to publish texts and wrote extensive commentaries. Do not stop and purely philological works, in particular - correction and completion of the collection of proverbs.

V1513, he was seriously ill, and in the summer across Europe rumor of his death. He is depressed, not only physically, but even more, morally, basically - wars in which sucked all the new lands and peoples. French in Italy no longer allies of Pope and his enemies, Spain an alliance with the Pope for a joint struggle against France for an alliance joins England, France seeks support in Scotland, joins the fight Emperor Maximilian, the entire north of Italy is transformed into a theater of action.

The fight was in full swing when Julius II died (February 1513). Erasmus was happy he considered the prime cause of militant dad universal mutual hostility - and responded to his death caustic satire. "Julius, not admitted to heaven."

Initially, in July 1514, Erasmus left England. Now he's famous, now he is not looking for patrons and sponsors are arguing over it. But he is not on his way to the court of the emperor or nobles, and in Basel, a printmaker Johann Frobenius, which will become its sole publisher. Along the way he receives a letter from the Prior (abbot) of the monastery of the Augustinian canon Stein.

Erasmus offer to return to his monastery after twenty years of wandering. Erasmus refuses to return, citing his unfitness for the monastic life, but above all that takes great and pleasing to God the revival of theology. The next three years are new wanderings Basel, London, Brussels, Antwerp, Bruges, Ghent, Mainz.

During these years, was released on major theological work of Erasmus - freed from errors Greek text of the New Testament with extensive commentary and a Latin translation, traditional, but somewhat corrected (only in 1519 Erasmus replaced his own translation made back in 1505-1506, respectively, and significantly different from the traditional). Almost simultaneously with the New Testament writings appeared nine volumes of St. Jerome. Erasmus prepared for the press and commented on the first four (epistolograficheskoe heritage Jerome).

He publishes "Educating Christian sovereign", dedicating it to the Spanish king Charles thanks for the post (or rather, a sinecure) royal adviser, which he received in 1515. In December 1516 his labor and care booklet appears under the title "On the best structure of the state and about the unknown island of Utopia" - an essay by Thomas More.

V1517-1521's Erasmus lived mainly in Louvain. The first two of them can be considered the apogee Erazmovoy glory. He - the brightest star and secular science, and theology. He does not rest on the visitors. He inundated with letters and offerings. He is annoyed by this excessive popularity, and see it as a sign of the coming golden age - an age of peace, justice and the great flowering of Arts and Sciences.

Erasmus put at the service of humanity reform, but did not break with the Catholic Church. However, the unity of the church and Christianity efforts of Martin Luther was irretrievably lost. October 31, 1517, Luther made his 95th theses against indulgences.

Reformation began. Conservative theologians instantly felt an inner connection between the "new theology" Erasmus and "Lutheran heresy." The amendments to the text and the traditional interpretation of the sacred books, in an effort to turn back to the sources of Christianity, the ideas and the rules of the ancient church, they saw the attacks on the Catholic faith as a whole - and were, in their own right. Among the newly minted opponents were good acquaintances of Erasmus, the people he respected and appreciated. He fought struggled wrote another "apology" for the other, cried out to protect the pope and the emperor. To theologians joined the mendicant friars preachers (Dominicans and Carmelites) Erasmus publicly vilified in the churches.

Now there was one goal of harassment - get Prince scholars and theologians oppose Luther and thus crush Luther weight Erazmova authority.

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