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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Erasmus (1466/1469-1536)

Outstanding humanist Renaissance. "Voltaire XVI century" (Dilthey); friend Thomas More, was associated with the Florentine Platonic Academy. Advocated tolerance and debate that took place on the Reformation, stood outside parties. Major works: "Praise of Folly."

Erasmus of Rotterdam glorified forever, though in this city lived only in early childhood. The name "Erasmus" - Greek origin, translated into Russian it sounds like a "favorite" or "welcome" in Latin - «disidenus». Later, as an adult, Erasmus attach a Latin translation of the Greek original, and will be known worldwide as Desiderius Erasmus. Real Name thinker - Gerhard Gerhards.

The light he appeared November 28, 1466 (according to other sources, 1469-th) year Erasmus was the illegitimate child of a priest begotten connection with the maid. Spot illicit origin man inflicted a heavy toll, as a moral, and quite real - preventing career, especially spiritual. Erasmus, however, never church honors not molested, but many traits - shyness, indecision, extreme touchiness and vulnerability, constant dissatisfaction him - he may owe their origin.

Pope Julius II in 1506 released a special charter from Erasmus all canonical restrictions imposed on it by birth out of wedlock. In 1517 Leo X confirmed this decision. Four years old boy was sent to school in the city of Gouda, but five years later the mother brought Erasmus and his older brother Peter in Deventer and placed in the school at the Cathedral Church of St. Lebuina.

School enjoyed a good reputation not only in Holland but also in the neighboring areas. Although Erasmus later spoke about her very cool, remembering "barbarian" (ie purely medieval) textbooks and teaching methods here that he first met with two decisive for all his later life spiritual movements - humanism and so-called "new piety" .

At the end of Erasmus stay in Deventer became rector of the school of Alexander Geeka (or Heek) in Westphalia, an enthusiast of new humanistic education. He was a friend and disciple of the renowned Rolef Heysmanna, or to the academic way, Rudolph Agricola, who taught Latin and Greek at the University of Heidelberg and reputed to be a "miracle of Germany." Agricola had been in Deventer, and Erasmus was lucky to even hear it once.

As for the "new piety", it was a religious movement that arose in the second half of the XIV century in the Netherlands and characterized by strict ethical orientation and very personal attitude to religion, the intricacies of scholastic theology are worth nothing compared to personal piety, but it is achievable only through mystical comprehension of the spirit of Christ, through the imitation of earthly actions and human virtues of Christ depicted in the Holy Scriptures.

"The new piety" was formally secular ideology, but essentially monastic "fraternities common life" by one of the main areas of activity which was the education of children. "Brothers" founded schools themselves or received by teachers in schools with large churches, and most importantly - contained shelters for schoolchildren. Most likely, Erasmus lived in one of three such shelters, which belonged to "brothers" in Deventer. Very much in the outlook of Erasmus - not only in its theological principles, but also in the philosophical views - easily and convincingly explained by the influence of the "new piety."

In 1485 the plague struck Deventer. Erasmus mother - she lived with her sons in Deventer - died, both boys returned to Gouda, near where he served in the parish of their father. And he died shortly thereafter. Guardians want to Erasmus and Peter entered the monastery. Orphans resisted this plan as they could and eventually received permission to continue to suspend classes in Hertogenbosch. However hertogenbosskaya "brothers-residential" somehow taught their pets and all the forces made use of only one thing - to convince or coerce young people to take monastic vows.

In 1487, when the plague came in 's-Hertogenbosch, the brothers returned to Gouda. Now they are treated more favorably to the persuasion of trustees about the monastery. Monastery walls - the only reliable protection from civil wars. In the same 1487 (or 1488-m), the Erasmus became a novice Stein monastery belonging to the Order of Augustinian canons and located about a mile from Gouda, and after a short period of novitiate was tonsured.

In the monastery had a good library, he read a lot - and "pagan" classics and ancient Christian writers - talked and corresponded with friends, writing poetry. But pretty soon he got bored in the monastery. Case break introduced in 1493. Henry of Bergen, bishop of Cambrai neighboring dioceses, preparing for a trip to Rome and sought scientific secretary, spotlessly owns Latin. Permission for temporary absences were received and from the abbot and from General Order, and the bishop of Utrecht, in whose diocese was Stein.

Interestingly, and perhaps significantly, from the monastery of Erasmus output coincides with the termination of civil unrest in the Netherlands. In 1492 Archduke Maximilian managed to put an end to strife and restored the power of the central government. Bishop continued service over a year and was not such as Erasmus counted. Traveling to Rome escaped, time passed in endless journeys from place to place, from one to another episcopal residence, work was very much leisure for scientists and poetic works no choice at all.

In the summer of 1495 Erasmus begged the bishop to let him go to Paris to study theology, and in September was a student at the Faculty of Theology, University of Paris. Erasmus lived in the college of Montague (closed monastic institution type), is famous for, among other Parisian colleges unprecedented severity and poor diet regime.

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