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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126-1198)

Arab philosopher and physician, a representative of the Arab Aristotelian. In his treatise "Refutation denials" rejected the denial of philosophy, delivered gas. Rationalist ideas of Ibn Rushd had a great influence on medieval philosophy, especially in Europe (Averroism). Copyright encyclopedic medical work.

Abu al-Walid Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd was born in Cordoba in 1126. His grandfather was a great qadi of Cordoba, Maliki jurist-prone, however, judging by some of his work, to reconcile philosophy with religion. The same position held by his father, through the intervention of whom Ibn Baja was once released from prison. Following the family tradition, Ibn Rushd from an early age he studied theology, jurisprudence, Arabic literature. Sources say that he showed a special ability to medicine. The names of his mentors in medical science knows, but with whom he studied philosophy - this information is available.

Perhaps a certain influence on his philosophical education had Abu Jaafar Harun, whom he studied medicine, because, according to the same sources, he was familiar with Greek philosophy, in particular, with the teachings of Aristotle. In addition to Ibn Tufayl Ibn Rushd was friends with the family of famous doctors Ibn Zuhr. In some works of Ibn Rushd meets date - in 1153, when he was in Morocco, apparently on the instructions of Abd al-Mumin in connection with the project of there schools modeled on those that were in Andalusia. During this trip, Ibn Rushd watched star Canopus and tested it on the sphericity of the Earth and its relative value.

Known as the approximate date - second half of 1168 or the first half of 1169 - dating of Ibn Rushd to the Caliph Abu Yakub. Clear evidence of the dual position of philosophers at the time is an episode from the life of Ibn Tufayl, which became a turning point in the biography of Ibn Rushd. Advantage of the proximity to the Abu Yakub Yusuf, philosopher Ibn Tufayl made invitations to the court of his talented friend.

When Ibn Rushd appeared before this enlightened caliph, who asked him: "Both in terms of philosophers - heaven or eternity has a beginning in time?" Ibn Rushd later recalled: "Then I was taken aback by the embarrassment and fear, and tried to talk deny that doing philosophy. I did not know yet that conceived him Ibn Tufayl. Realizing my shyness and embarrassment, Commander of the Faithful Ibn Tufayl approached and started a conversation with him about to ask me questions. He remembered that talked about this, Aristotle, Plato and other philosophers, as well as counter-led champions of Islam, and I saw it as such erudition, which could not assume none of those working on this subject, devoting his entire time. He continued to shoot with me until stiff, until I finally spoke. And he learned that I had about all this in mind, and when I retired, commanded to give me money, gorgeous clothes and honorary knight. "

This event Ibn Rushd later told his disciples, and his story came to us in the transfer of al-Marrakushi. Around the same time include the content of the story of Ibn Rushd or other significant events of his biography - events that determined his future glory commentator.

"One day - he says - Ibn Tufayl called me and said - I heard today, as Commander of the Faithful, lamenting the difficult passages in Aristotle - or translators - and for mentioning about the ambiguities their plans, said: "If it were found for these books a man who thoroughly comprehended goals pursued in them, would give their presentation and interpretation available, that's when they would be comprehensible to people." So if you have enough strength to it, take to work. I know your great mind, the purity of your instincts and your strong attraction to science, and I think it will be you on the shoulder. I myself would undertake this, but only I can see, in years, busy breech service and care related to my business, to my mind, more important. " Concluding the story about this case, Ibn Rushd said: "That's what made me set out what I set out from the books of Aristotle."

Commander of the Faithful, so not only surrounded himself sorokatrehletnego scientist, but also gave him an official job - do commenting on Aristotle. Simultaneously, Ibn Rushd was appointed qadi of Seville. A few months later it had completed work on the interpretation of Aristotle's book "On the origin of animals."

In 1171 Ibn Rushd back to Cordoba, where he soon took already become hereditary in his family a great position Qadi. Public service, despite its positive aspects, time-consuming and distracting from the implementation of scientific projects. In one of his works philosopher complains that could prevent some errors because he was busy with urgent matters extraneous and did not have at hand the necessary sources of Cordoba remaining in his house, in another essay, he laments the fact that the lack of time forced him to confine the most important issues, comparing himself to victims of the fire, which pulls out of the fire, only the most necessary belongings.

In 1182 Ibn Rushd Ibn Tufayl replaces the positions of royal physician of the Caliph.

In 1184, after the death of Abu Yakub, Caliph throne passed to his son Abu Yusuf Yakubu. The new ruler Ibn Rushd was in favor of not less than the former. Hours, happened, he would sit in the chambers of the Caliph on a bed reserved for the closest friends of the host, leading scientists talk with him from time to time turned to him and said, "Listen, my brother." Meanwhile over it already clouds are gathering.

Storm broke out in 1195 when Abu Yusuf ordered to burn the works of Ibn Rushd and the philosopher himself exiled to the village of al-Yasan, near Cordoba. The order was given by the Caliph in Cordoba when he returned from a trip to the Castilians.

Medieval Arab authors comment that event differently.

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