General Psychology Psychiatry Psychologists Thinkers Crib

Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Pierre Palais Abelard (1079-1142)

French philosopher, theologian, poet. Developed the doctrine, later called conceptualism. Developed scholastic dialectics (the essay "Yes and No"). Rationalist orientation Abelard ("understand to believe") drew protests Orthodox Church circles; teaching Abelard was condemned in 1121 and cathedrals 1140's. Tragic love story of Abelard to Heloise described in his autobiography, "The history of my distress."

Abelard by birth belonged to the class of feudal lords His father, a knight Berengaria had little possession near Nantes in Brittany, which had to pass by inheritance to Abelard as the eldest son. However, Abelard has chosen a different path in life, and to waive all rights of seniority in favor of their brothers, devoted himself to the study of philosophy.

He left his family and their homes and turned into a so-called vagrants, wandering scholar, passes in search of knowledge from school to school. So Abelard got to Paris and became a pupil there Catholic theologian and philosopher William of Champeaux, who taught philosophy at the cathedral school.

Some researchers believe that this happened at the end of XI century, others - include this event in the early years of the XII century.

Guillaume very soon noticed a young man capable of Abelard and allocated among the other of his disciples. But good attitude Guillaume to Abelard did not last long. Abelard began openly and boldly oppose the philosophical concept of his teacher and this caused great dissatisfaction with his hand. The gap was inevitable. Abelard not only leave the Cathedral School, but decided to open his own choosing for this Melun, located near Paris.

Despite the opposition of William, the school was opened, and a new master's lecture immediately attracted many students. Seeing this, Abelard decided to move to Paris and moved even closer to his school in Corbeil to meet more often with their philosophical opponents - Guillaume and his disciples. However, as a result of serious illness caused by stressful occupations, Abelard had to cease their activities and time to leave home.

Recovering from illness, he again returned to Paris (about 1108), resumed his old disputes with William of Champeaux and defeated him a decisive victory. Abelard fame as a philosopher by this time so outgrowth that the successor to the cathedral school of Guillaume invited there for Abelard lecturing himself became his listener.

Guillaume also moved from Paris to the abbey of Saint-Victor and only occasionally comes over to the cathedral school for supervision. Learning about the weakness shown by his successor, William hastened to replace it (as the head of the school) and his other disciple thus forced to move again Abelard in Melun and open a new school.

However, this time Abelard remained at Melun long. Disciples gathered around him, he returned with them to Paris and "spread - as he said - her school camp" on the hill of St. Genevieve. No one knows what would have ended this time endless debates Abelard and his followers with their opponents.

For family reasons, connected with the introduction of both his parents to the monastery, Abelard was forced once again to leave home, and when he returned to Paris (after spending some time in Brittany, and then at Laon, where he had gone for the purpose of supplement their secular education theological), William of Champeaux in the cathedral school of Paris was not. Appointed bishop of Chalons, he moved to his diocese (1113).

Abelard had the opportunity to lecture at the same school from which previously was expelled. In Paris, as in other cities of the North-East of France, was a close contest between the various schools of thought. It is here, and it was at this time in medieval philosophy were two basic directions - realism and nominalism, whose followers came to each other in violent clashes.

Ancestor of medieval nominalism was Rostselin teacher Abelard and modern realism Rostselinu represented Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, theologian, scientist mentor Anselm of Laon, which was closest disciple of Abelard philosophical enemy - William of Champeaux.

Medieval Realism got its name from the Latin word «rea» - «thing», as representatives of the purely idealistic theory argued that the general concepts (universals) have a real existence, regardless of really existing world before him. And thus proving the "reality" of the existence of objects of faith, medieval realism serve the interests of the Catholic Church and found with her hand full support. Teaching realist nominalist doctrine countered that all the general concepts and ideas (Universal) - just a word or name («nomia» - «Names") things really existing and previous concepts (hence the name itself nominalism ).

Consequently, Nominalists sharply contrasted total private and recognized for the true reality only one world of individual things. Denial Nominalists independent existence of general concepts undoubtedly cleared the ground for the pursuit of empirical knowledge and to some extent pushed the followers of the path of nominalism materialistic conclusions.

Church immediately discerned danger in teaching Nominalists and one of the church councils (in Soissons, in 1092) looks Rostselina anathema betrayed and forced him to abandon his philosophical studies. Despite this, the philosophical views Rostselina had an extremely great influence on Abelard, which led him into conflict with the representative of extreme realism - William of Champeaux, though somewhat modified his views in the debate and have adhered to the moderate realists.

Their eagerness to refute the teachings of Abelard realists inevitably led to a clash with Catholic orthodoxy and made Abelard highly suspicious and undesirable master in their eyes.

Not less irritation on the part of the church was to cause a collision and Abelard with a prominent Catholic theologian Anselm Lansky during their stay Abelard at Laon.

© 2008-2019 Psychology online.: en, es, de, fr, cz