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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (1059-1111)

It seemed to me that certain knowledge - it is knowing when knowable thing reveals itself so that there is no room for doubt, but it is not itself associated with the possibility of errors and illusions. "

From the same work, we learn that the reason that Ghazali changed his life, left his post in Nizamiye and started "search for truth", was questioned. Ghazali questioned the views of all major groups of Islam at the time: mutakallims, philosophers, Ismaili (batinitov) and Sufis. Skeptical attitude toward views known to him makes him deeply to study philosophy, logic, Sufism, Ismaili doctrine and dogmatic theology in order to find the truth - the true knowledge of the world and decide who is to be Muslim.

In 1106 the son of Nizam al-Mulk Fakhr al-Mulk Ghazali demanded that he continued teaching and Ghazali returned to lecturing in Nizamiyya madrasa.

During this time he wrote "The Savior of confusion", which describes the most important events of his life, the evolution of his views. This work - not an autobiography. Ghazali shows the evolution of the human world through the mistakes and errors, hobbies and frustration to the ideal, as he imagined it.

Ghazali once visited Omar Khayyam, probably at the observatory, in order to obtain clarification from the sage versed in astronomy about a provision of the firmament. Khayyam Imam began to explain movement of the stars, but one can see, not all enlightened. At this time, prior to hearing the call came muedzinana for midday prayers. Ghazali heard the sacred call to supplication, said: "Truth has come - and scattered empty lies." And he left.

"Resurrection of Sciences of faith" was apparently completed before returning to Baghdad Ghazali.

Sufism fascination continued to play an important role in the life of Ghazali, although it still served as a professor of fiqh. Shortly before his death. Ghazali again leaves teaching and returned to Tus. There in his cell, he teaches young followers of the Sufi way of life. Ghazali died at the fifty-fifth year of life in 1111.

Just as Ghazali combined the orthodox and Sufi-jurist, his main work "Resurrection of Sciences of faith" - connects the values ​​of orthodox Sunni Sufi ideals. Sufi ideals occupy "Resurrection sciences faith" leading place, so many researchers reckon treatise to the works of Sufi literature.

Biggest gas produced consists of four rubov ("quarters"), and each includes 10 books rub. Welded called "Rites", "customs", "blighters", "Savior." Each book is divided into Rukn consisting of tents, which in turn consist of the Bayan.

The purpose of human life is declared "salvation", and the meaning of its existence is, according to Ghazali, in the apprehension of "The Truth", that is, in a mystical approach to God, the knowledge of the divine essence, the acquisition of "certain knowledge." To achieve this ultimate goal a person must go through a long path of cultivation and accumulation of positive qualities. In this way Ghazali notes in ascending order of perfection, "parking", or step - maqamat. Ghazali treatise contains the basic ideas of the Sufi system: the idea of ​​a mystical closeness to God; tariqas idea - the way to this proximity, which marked "parking", symbolizing a certain quality; idea Sufi ideals of patience, poverty, asceticism, love, etc. §

Making religion the object of feelings and emotions, Ghazali is trying to "revive" the Sunni traditionalism, lags a new life, so he called his work "The revival of the sciences of faith." Ghazali proves the "righteousness" of Sufism through interpretation of verses of the Quran and Hadith - Sunni traditions of the Prophet.

Ghazali skepticism rather original in medieval Islamic thought. Ghazali was the first major thinker of Islam, which questioned the very possibility to know the truth about the world received a complete philosophical expression of his belief system. Gas precursor in skepticism can be regarded as the Sufis who deny the cognitive capabilities of the human mind. Skepticism did not always lead to the Muslim thinkers religious mystical solution.

Ghazali considers himself questioned the way to comprehend the truth. Some researchers Ghazali gave exceptional value this side views thinker, considering its predecessor Hume's philosophical skepticism and just in general. In particular, MacDonald believed that Ghazali "comes to the highest degree of intellectual skepticism and seven centuries before Hume he" breaks the shackles of causality "blade of his dialectic and proclaims that we know neither cause nor effect, but only that one follows the other. " Renan claimed that after Ghazali "Hume is nothing more to say."

Causality of phenomena Ghazali denies and "Resurrection sciences on faith." Ghazali calls ignorant one who believes that, because the mind is the first in a chain of events, he is the cause of expression and therefore action. According to Ghazali, the creator and cause of each of these phenomena - Allah. He created a procedure in which a single phenomenon can occur only in the presence of the other. Sequence of related phenomena Allah is like a chain conditions.

Thus, the construction of the gas reduces to two ideas. First, there is a certain sequence of events, such as seed - life - mind - the will - power - action. None of these units can not occur before the One True that "sometimes long, sometimes occurs as an instant bolt of lightning." The main thing - to seek to know God, no matter whether it reaches people. "Do not reach knowable - is to know" - says Ghazali. Allah know - it means not necessarily see it, but to understand its unknowability. The main thing in the process of human cognition gas - see for jobbing - substantial, visible in usual activities and their divine prototype of phenomena.

Ghazali on how knowledge develops the concept of different abilities, including on the basis of study of the entire text of "The Resurrection of Sciences of faith" to the two major - reason and higher supersensible ability.

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