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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (1059-1111)

Iranian theologian and philosopher of Islam. First, in the spirit of a mystic Sufi questioned the general validity of the law of causality, then became a staunch opponent of philosophy ("Refutation of philosophers") and voosnovatelem orthodox theology ("Resurrection of Sciences of faith"). Had an impact on medieval philosophy, including in Europe.

Ghazali - theologian, jurist, Sufi philosopher - was one of the most famous thinkers of medieval Islam. He has written a large number of works (according to various estimates, at least a hundred) in biobibliography, jurisprudence, philosophy and logic, dogmatic theology, polemics, practice Sufism, Sufism theory.

Sufism (the mystical branch of Islam) originated in VIII-IX centuries. For Sufism characterized by a combination of metaphysics and ascetic practices, the doctrine of gradual approximation through mystical love to know God and merge with it.

Ghazali had a great influence on the development of the Arab-Muslim culture. According to Hadith, foretold the coming of Islam updater times each century, the Arabs perceived as Ghazali updater fifth centuries of Islam. Largest biographer Suyuti said: "If after Muhammad could be a prophet, it would, of course, gas."

Ghazali's views were known to medieval Europe. The researchers argue that Ghazali influenced Thomas Aquinas, and the whole scholasticism. The name of the gas in medieval Europe associated paradox. Ghazali, leading the debate with the philosophers, especially Muslim - al-Farabi and Ibn Sina, wrote two books, "The aspirations of philosophers" and "philosophers refutation."

In the first book Ghazali only expounding the views of philosophers writing in the introduction, that is going to deny them the concept of the second work entitled "Refutation of the philosophers." The book "Aspirations philosophers" Ghazali was transferred to Toledo in 1145 to Latin monk Dominique Gundisalvo, but without the introduction and conclusion, bringing Ghazali long revered European scholastics for the philosopher, whose views are similar to the views of Farabi and Ibn Sina. Later, however, thanks to new translations became known in Europe and a real gas.

Ghazali hardly knew Hegel notes that the philosopher was witty skeptic, had a great eastern mind.

Abu Hamid Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad al-Ghazali was born in 1058 (1059) in the city of Tus in Khorasan. He was orphaned early, left with his brother Ahmad. Home Training in Tus from Imam Ahmad ar-Razikani Ghazali goes then Jurjan and Nishapur, where he attended the lessons of the famous al-Asharites Juwayni, nicknamed Imam al-Haramain. Even then, he stands out among the students of the last their knowledge and abilities. Abu Hamid learns from Imam al-Haramain until the death of the teacher. Then Ghazali says ruler Nizam al-Mulk and takes him into his inner circle, where a young scientist greeted with honor and respect. Ghazali is fast gaining popularity. Then it was said about him: Behind him go and he who does not like to rush, and who can not sing, he will sing.

After a while Ghazali commits step bewildering his contemporaries and later scholars of his work. In 1095, a few months after a nervous illness interrupted his speaking engagements, Ghazali leaving Baghdad, under the pretext of Hajj and throws a career lawyer and theologian, in which he excelled. Ghazali leads the life of an ascetic hermit and for eleven years, until 1106. He later wrote that the main reason for his departure was allegedly a desire to break with the profession of lawyer. Since the Muslim jurists and theologians were amazed at his words, "decomposition", Ghazali, belonging to them, "swept the fear of hell."

Researchers of Ghazali expressed differing assumptions about the reasons which prompted the eleven-year isolation. F. Zhabre suggested that one of the motives escape Ghazali was his fear of a terrorist attack by the Order of the Ismaili assassins who killed Nizam al-Mulk in 1092. And this assumption is not unreasonable Ghazali criticizes Ismaili batiniya theory. He refutes the claim of the Fatimid Caliph of Baghdad to the throne, and proves the legitimacy of the rights of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustazhira.

DB MacDonald pointed out that Gaza could be in danger by the Seljuk Sultan Barkyaruka. Shortly before departure Ghazali Sultan executed his uncle Tutushev, Syrian governor Tutushev also supported Caliph and Ghazali.

The possibility of fear of reprisals Ghazali Barkyaruka indicated by the fact that Ghazali returned to Baghdad shortly after the death of the sultan in 1105. Against the possibility of retaliation by Barkyaruka says the fact that the patron Nizam al-Ghazali Mulk once supported young Barkyaruka and even quarreled with because of Melik Shah, alleged to give the throne to another son - Mahmoud.

SN Grigoryan raises the following assumption about the motives escape Ghazali. "The fear of becoming a victim of Muslim obscurantism forced him to abandon his anti-Islamic views," "I am convinced - 1156 Ghazali wrote in his autobiographical treatise - that I was standing on the edge of the abyss, and that if not corrected their position'll probably'll get to hell. "

This assumption is based on the following facts. In Baghdad, Ghazali wrote the book "Answers to questions", which preaches views philosophers Aristotelians, "asserts the eternity of motion of the spheres". However, until we reached a Hebrew translation of this work. The presence of the Hebrew text of the work, wrote the historian of the XIII century Moses Narbonne. Hard to imagine that Ghazali "was removed from teaching" (to dismiss says not one Arab historian XII-XIII centuries) and "was forced to leave Baghdad," as in most of his works appeared as Ghazali consistent defender of orthodox Islam.

In "Saviors of delusion" Ghazali wrote: "The thirst of understanding the true nature of things was my property and desire everyday since my first independent steps, from the first days of my youth.

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