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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » John Scotus Eriugena (810 Oak - Oak 877)

Philosopher, of Irish descent, from the beginning of 840's lived in France at the court of Charles the Bald. Guided by the Greek Neo-medieval (translated into Latin "Areopagitica"). In the main essay "On the Division of Nature" singled out the nature of "the creative and Creation" (God), "Creation and the creative" (divine ideas), "Creation and the creative" (God as the ultimate goal of the world process).

Eriugena ideas were condemned as heretical.

The most interesting figure in terms of the grand philosophical and theological synthesis in the Middle Ages was undoubtedly Erigena, and giant sphinx, striking the imagination of its significance and at the same time the structural complication of the most original of his works. The name Eriugena connect the beginning of scholastic philosophy.

In medieval Europe, studied philosophy in schools mainly in monasteries. "Scholastica" Latin translates as "school." Besides philosophy in medieval schools taught "Seven Liberal Arts." This complex was designed by Boethius. It included "trivium" (grammar, rhetoric, dialectic) and "Quadrium" (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music).

This is called the art of science, because science in the Middle Ages was called only theological knowledge. And all that was free from his influence, called "liberal arts." So, the "father of scholasticism" assumed Eriugenu philosopher who lived in the IX century. Moreover, from a formal point of view, he is the first medieval philosopher. After all, "medieval", according to historical science, begins after the final collapse of the empire zapadnorimskoy that occurred in the year 476. Therefore, commonly called the Middle Ages between V and XV century in European history. Of course, the essence of medieval philosophy was determined long before the medieval era. And because Erigena, as his followers, appealing to existing models, not trying to start over and pretend to be a pioneer.

About Eriugena life little is known. According to his contemporary Truasskogo Prudentius, he was born into a noble family in Ireland, originally was a Celt. Settling in Gaul, Eriugena found refuge at the court of Charles the Bald (not later than 847 years) and enjoyed the special favor of the king, reputed to be the patron of science. Thinker court supervised school. He wrote poetry, though he was not a poet by vocation. Erigena had great authority, and although there was a secular person, advised the clergy on theological issues.

One thinker was invited bishops Ginkmara of Reims and Lyon Pardula of a debate on the question of the destiny of man. It was believed that some people inevitably destiny is hell, others - salvation in heaven. In connection with this work Eriugena wrote "On the divine purpose," which argued that a person can not be designed heaven or hell, as importantly, what God gave man - is the freedom of choice. And since God originally good, he determines the person to the choice of good. So eventually everyone, including Satan, return to God. The work was unconventional and was recognized as heretical church. This work, which was given to solving the problem with abstract and philosophical point of view, and allowed explicit liberties in interpreting some of the places in the writings of St. Augustine, caused an uproar by Frankish theologians.

Teaching philosopher seemed dangerous heresy, and was the subject of sharp rebuttal, then was condemned at the councils in Balance (855) and Langres (859), Pope Nicholas I consented to the last church, where the views were condemned Eriugena.

Despite the unanimous condemnation of the church of his writings on predestination, Eriugena still enjoyed the location of the king and his court spent his philosophical studies. In Ireland, he mastered the Greek and Latin languages ​​and enjoyed the works of ancient authors, admiring the progress of their thoughts.

Greek writers of the greatest impact on the Pseudo-Dionysius Eriugenu (perhaps he was a judge in the Areopagus, where they met with the Apostle Paul). When it became clear that the works were arranged much later Neoplatonic author formation, then appeared the prefix "pseudo". In the center of reflection Pseudo-Dionysius - God, knowledge of which begins in a positive way, and ends negative. At first he attributed all the best and easiest of the created world, then subsequently denied. God - beyond any notion of higher human cognition. He Overbeing, sverhsuschnost, sverhdobrota, Superlife, super-breath.

On behalf of the King Eriugena translates works of St. Dionysius the Areopagite. Perhaps this is also related to the order of a dispute about predestination, as opponents as evidence of his innocence is referred to the authority of Dionysius, using dubious translation Gilduina abbot of Saint-Denis.

In 861 or 862, Nicholas I, to which heard rumors that Eriugena is not going to back down from his views, demanded forward made his translation in Rome, for a thorough examination. Later, in 875, Anastasius the Librarian in his letter to Carl bald expressed his admiration for transfer Eriugena. Scholastics long use it, even when there were more accurate translations.

After the first experience, again on behalf of the king, Erigena translated the works of one of the binding. Maximus the Confessor. Studying the works of ancient Greek thinkers, Eriugena developed their own religious and philosophical outlook. His main work, "On the Division of Nature" during the life of the philosopher was condemned by the church, and twice. Essay written in the form of a dialogue between teacher and student, devoted Vulfadu. This major work Eriugena in five books in the form of dialogue introduces the four stages of life: nature, which is not created, but creates, nature of creation and the creative nature of creation, but not the creative nature is not a created and not the creative.

Uncreated nature and the creative - is God.

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