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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Augustine of Hippo (Blessed) (354-430)

But when in front of him began to open the horizons of spiritual life, and he has long clung to the pleasures of the material world, and particularly difficult for him to abandon the pleasures of carnal love. Libido firmly holds in his hands the body and soul of Augustine.

Two trends torn Late Antique world - absolute spirituality and sensuality limit. Two will, in the words of Augustine, tearing his soul - the flesh (old) and spiritual (new). Having learned from the Neoplatonists to look into his inner world and exacerbating this ability to the limit, Augustine gives you wonderful in its depth and artistic expression describing their internal emotional states and dramatic movements of the time: "From the same evil will arise lust, you rabstvuesh lust - and it becomes a habit, you will not oppose habit - and it becomes a necessity. And two of my will, one old and one new, one carnal, the other spiritual, fought in me and in this strife torn my soul. I understand that I am the proof of what read as "plotting against the spirit of the body, and the spirit against the body." I lived and that and the other. "

When the troops of Alaric in 410 devastated Rome, among the heathen broke another wave of anti-Christian disturbances. Disasters Rome blames Christian state, trampling down and expel the ancient gods who are now taking revenge for the insult inflicted on them. Augustine has to take up the pen to write another (in a long line) apology for Christianity.

Thus, the conquest of Rome by the barbarians was an important occasion and impetus for writing a lot and in many ways the final treatise Augustine's "City of God", over which the bishop of Hippo worked with 413 to 426 a year. However, the appearance of this work naturally follows from its internal philosophical aspirations.

By the time of "City of God" Augustine bad for his time knew the history of culture. In the largest Christian apologia cited no less than thirty-five ancient authors, of which Varro - at least 210 times, Virgil - not less than 85, Cicero - not less than 45, Plato - 20, Apuleius - 27 times. In many ancient treatise reminiscences and individual ideas retellings of ancient writers (eg, dam). The Bible is cited at least 1400 times. Augustine on apologists usually not referenced, but draws from them a lot of facts and arguments. Foundation of Augustinian philosophy is the idea of ​​the existence of the two communities, the two states, or "two castles" - the divine and the earthly. The first includes all the faithful God being good angels, true Christians and virtuous people. Still associated with sin, dishonest business, carnal and vain desire, reaching the wrong ways, etc., constitute the earthly city citizens.

Earthly city - it's the whole history of mankind, the history of "the earthly kingdoms." It has "seven ages" first - from Adam to the flood, the second - from the flood to Abraham, the third - from Abraham to David, the fourth - from David to the exile to Babylon, the fifth - from Babylonian resettlement BC sixth - now lasts from the birth of Christ and the seventh - the next century. In the next century, according to Augustine, all citizens of the earthly city, if you do not have time to join the life "in the Spirit" will be condemned to eternal damnation and wanderers City of God and find peace "ineffable bliss."

Religio-philosophical system of Augustine is a compound of a biblical worldview with the provisions of Neo-Platonism, which are acceptable to the Christian faith. The central point of the philosophical system of Augustine - God. According to Augustine, God is a supreme being, he - the only one in the world that does not depend on anyone or anything. Everything else is determined by divine will and depends on it. God created the world and continues to do it constantly. Augustine stands on positions of dualism of God and the world. Nature and man created by God and are totally dependent on him, and God, man and nature does not depend.

For Augustine, the soul has only man. The soul of man is created by God and then there is always: "The way the soul connected with the bodies and become living beings, in the full sense of the word amazing and decidedly incomprehensible to man and yet this is the man." God, according to Augustine, creates only good, evil is that filled the world entirely on the conscience of man, and is to blame for this his free will. God created Adam and Eve free, but they fell into sin by eating the forbidden fruit and violating the prohibition of God.

Having used his free will, contrary to the divine commandments, Adam created a gulf between man and God. Free will is constantly pushing the person on the path of sin. Sin is that person attracted to worldly goods, he becomes arrogant, imagines that can live without God in the world and master it. Most people commit sinful acts due to the fact that this is ordained by God. Only a minority commits acts morally irreproachable, but not of its own volition, but because it is ordained from above. So most of the sinners can not expect to go to heaven because they are not descended divine grace.

This is the concept of divine predestination. For better person directs the will of God, man is drawn to sin himself through his free will. Augustine believed that the purpose of human life - happiness, which consists in the knowledge of God and testing of the soul. Before a person comes to the major truths, he, according to Augustine, must go through a situation of total doubt in everything and everyone. And out of this situation Augustine links with the formula: "I doubt, therefore I exist" Thus Augustine anticipates methodological move XVII century rationalist Descartes, which is born of the total output of doubt: "I think, therefore I exist."

Augustine, a priest, left a great theological heritage.

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