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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Augustine of Hippo (Blessed) (354-430)

By this time he was already well versed in many sciences, well-read in philosophy. Comparing philosophies "with endless Manichaean fables", he realized that the first is much closer to the truth, because based on a reasonable investigation of the visible world. Particularly glaring was the contradiction between the astronomical knowledge of the time and fantastic ideas Manichaeans. Augustine faith in Manichaeism largely undermined his acquaintance and conversation with Bishop Faustus idol Manichaeans, which proved an eloquent preacher, but almost completely ignorant to free science and philosophy. Faustus himself started with great zeal to learn from Augustine, and the latter rushed to search for new spiritual horizons.

In the year 384 with the help of his friends Manichaean he moved to Rome, and at their request, was appointed teacher of rhetoric in Milan ritorskoy school. Without giving further support from the Manichees, Augustine already looking for a new way to truth. Later Augustine will remember that in Italy he often conversed with yourself about the way of finding the truth, and it seemed to him that it is impossible to find, and in my mind he flew off to the Academy. On his arrival in Milan (Mediolanum) Augustine visited famous throughout West Bishop Ambrose of Milan, who interpreted the events of the Old Testament stories are not literal, but "in a spiritual sense." He was strongly influenced by the symbolic-allegorical method of interpretation of the Old Testament, dating back to Philo and his Christian followers Clement and Origen. It was new for Augustine and was for him a kind of revelation. Ambrose, like his spiritual mentor Simplician, was under the influence of Neo-Platonism, which was distributed whereas among pagans and Christians.

In Milan, there was a circle of "Platonic", Latin translations of "Enneads", made famous rhetorician philosophizing Marius Victorinus, soon fell into the hands of Augustine and struck him with their spiritual strength and depth. From them he learned about the idea of ​​incorporeal, immaterial spirituality, Platonism showed him the way inward, focused on the search for truth is not in the external world, but in the innermost recesses of the soul. Great influence of Neoplatonism on Augustine significantly in almost all his works. Later, becoming one of the main ideologists of Christianity, Augustine had a deep respect for the Neoplatonists, believing that they were closest of all other philosophers to Christianity. According to him, the change only certain words and thoughts in lyrics Neoplatonists turned them into Christian. However, Augustine did not clean Platonist.

At this time in Milan, Augustine's mother arrived and using Simplician tried to send her son to the path of Christianity to which he, as he felt gravitated more and more. Augustine threw service and retired with a group of friends and relatives at the villa of his friend in Kassitsiake (near Milan), where indulged in spiritual reflection, conversations with friends and actively preparing for the adoption of Christianity. 387 April 24, he, along with his son and another Adeodatom Alypy baptized.

The adoption of Christianity Augustine understood as a departure from the everyday hustle and bustle of the harbor of true philosophy and a deep spiritual life. In Kassitsiake Augustine had written the first philosophical treatises: "Against the Academics", "On the blessed life" and "On", "Monologues", "On the immortality of the soul", launched treatise "On the music." According to estimates of the Augustine to 427, he wrote a treatise of 93, totaling 232 books, not counting the huge number of letters and sermons (of the last has survived 500). Come down to us only 10 of these works by Augustine.

After baptism Augustine decides to return to his native Africa. On the way home his mother dies Augustine delayed some time in Rome, wrote a few books here and autumn 388 years comes home. He sells his modest estate and organizes Tagaste small community monastic type of six. Three years, lived in Tagaste, entirely devoted to spiritual pursuits: fasting, prayer, good works, thinking about God, conversations with friends and work on the books. Name Augustine becoming better known among local Catholic Christians, and soon at their insistence, Bishop of Hippo (25 km from Tagast) Valery dedicates it to a priest (391).

The Catholic Church has experienced an acute shortage of clergymen. Augustine as one of the most educated Catholics in Africa call for active church activities. In 395 Valery dedicates it to his successor, and a year later, in the 396-m, after the death of Valeria, Augustine takes the episcopal see of Hippo, where he stayed for '34 - until his death.

At the office of Bishop Augustine did much to strengthen the Catholic religion in Africa, deepening of Christian doctrine in the fight against heretical movements - Donatism and Pelagianism. I must say, Augustine in the fight against dissent was not averse force of state coercion. In the "Apology persecution" Augustine writes that the wounds inflicted by another, better Kisses enemy. Nevertheless, he praises the investigator in bringing confessions "among birches, without resorting to stretching the body of the machine nor pullout meat hooks, nor burn-its flame." Not accidentally scholars of Augustine called it "the hammer of heretics."

Augustine experienced troops rout of Rome Alaric in 410. He died on 28 August 430, in Hippo, besieged by vandals. In the last hours, he begged God to send him to death before vandals take the city.

Time was approaching collapse of the Roman Empire. Augustine began its life as a full-blooded "somatic" tasted the pleasures of "bodily life" and only then, feeling dissatisfied with it, and ran in search of a higher truth.

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